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Constraint-based approaches recently brought new insight into our understanding of metabolism. By making very simple assumptions such as that the system is at steady-state and some reactions are irreversible, and without requiring kinetic parameters, general properties of the system can be derived. A central concept in this methodology is the notion of an(More)
MOTIVATION In the context of studying whole metabolic networks and their interaction with the environment, the following question arises: given a set of target metabolites T and a set of possible external source metabolites , which are the minimal subsets of that are able to produce all the metabolites in T. Such subsets are called the minimal precursor(More)
We present the first exact method based on the topology of a metabolic network to find minimal sets of metabolites (called precursors) sufficient to produce a set of target metabolites. In contrast with previous proposals, our model takes into account self-regenerating metabolites involved in cycles, which may be used to generate target metabolites from(More)
Endosymbiotic bacteria from different species can live inside cells of the same eukaryotic organism. Metabolic exchanges occur between host and bacteria but also between different endocytobionts. Since a complete genome annotation is available for both, we built the metabolic network of two endosymbiotic bacteria, Sulcia muelleri and Baumannia(More)
In the context of the study into elementary modes of metabolic networks, we prove two complexity results. Enumerating elementary modes containing a specific reaction is hard in an enumeration complexity sense. The decision problem if there exists an elementary mode containing two specific reactions is NP-complete. The complexity of enumerating all(More)
The uptake of fluoride in enamel and dentin after application of an experimental fluoride varnish has been studied and compared with the uptake from a commercially available varnish (Duraphat). Each varnish was applied to 10 extracted human cuspid teeth. Successive etchings with perchloric acid were carried out separately in enamel and root dentin to obtain(More)
Power efficiency is critical for electrical stimulators. Battery life of wearable stimulators and wireless power transmission in implanted systems are common limiting factors. Boost DC/DC converters are typically needed to increase the supply voltage of the output stage. Traditionally, boost DC/DC converters are used with fast control to regulate the supply(More)
Inductive powering of implantable medical devices involves numerous factors acting on the system efficiency and safety in adversarial ways. This paper lightens up their role and identifies a procedure enabling the system design. The latter enables the problem to be decoupled into four principal steps: the frequency choice, the magnetic link optimization,(More)