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OBJECTIVE To assess the 9-month HIV-free survival of children with two strategies to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission. DESIGN Nonrandomized interventional cohort study. SETTING Four public health centres in Rwanda. PARTICIPANTS Between May 2005 and January 2007, all consenting HIV-infected pregnant women were included. INTERVENTION Women(More)
AIM To analyze the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution and transmission risk factors in a population of unselected patients in Luxembourg. METHODS Epidemiological information (gender, age and transmission risks) were collected from 802 patients newly diagnosed for hepatitis C and living in Luxembourg, among whom 228 patients referred from(More)
In Western Africa, hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype E predominates throughout a vast crescent spanning from Senegal to Namibia and at least to the Central African Republic to the East. Although from most of the eastern parts of sub-Saharan Africa only limited sets of strains have been characterized, these belong predominantly to genotype A. To study how far(More)
In 1994, an outbreak of dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae type I resistant to all public health antibiotics in vitro occurred among rwandan refugees in Zaïre. The only active antimicrobial agent available was ciprofloxacin. It was administered to hospitalized patients in a conventional 5-day schedule. To ration the supply for the benefit of the(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Highly active antiretroviral therapy with efavirenz (EFV) has been prescribed to HIV-positive pregnant women in Rwanda (HIV status 1 and CD4 cell count > 350 cells/mm) during the last trimester of pregnancy and for 6 months after delivery. The EFV concentrations in maternal plasma, breast milk and in newborns' plasma of 13 women and(More)
INTRODUCTION All infants born to HIV-positive mothers have maternal HIV antibodies, sometimes persistent for 18 months. When Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is not available, August 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations suggest that clinical criteria may be used for starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV seropositive children <18(More)
Cytochrome P450 CYP2B6 is a highly polymorphic enzyme that metabolizes numerous drugs, pesticides, and environmental toxins. Sequence analysis of a Rwandese population identified eight functionally uncharacterized nonsynonymous variants c.329G>T (p.G110V), c.341T>C (p.I114T), c.444G>T (p.E148D), c.548T>G (p.V183G), c.637T>C (p.F213L), c.758G>A (p.R253H),(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes in Luxembourg between 1983 and 2000. To compare the drug susceptibility of non-B and B clade viruses and the prevalence of resistance-associated mutations and polymorphisms before antiretroviral treatment. DESIGN A retrospective study on plasma samples of HIV-infected patients registered at the National(More)
Computer programs which can be used as an aid to diagnose multiple congenital anomaly syndromes have been used for many years, but up to now they have been evaluated very rarely. The diagnostic abilities of three of these systems [LDDB (London Dysmorphology Database), POSSUM (Pictures of Standard Syndromes and Undiagnosed Malformations), and SYNDROC] were(More)