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Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype is an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy but a comprehensive study of classical and more novel microglial phenotypic markers(More)
Introduction Friday, Nov 13, 2015. It’s 2130 h when the Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP) is alerted to the explosions that have just occurred at the Stade de France, a stadium in Saint-Denis just outside Paris. Within 20 min, there are shootings at four sites and three bloody explosions in the capital. At 2140 h, a massacre takes place and(More)
OBJECTIVE Activated microglia play a central role in the inflammatory and excitotoxic component of various acute and chronic neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms leading to their activation in the latter context are poorly understood, particularly the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which are critical for excitotoxicity in(More)
BACKGROUND Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a prominent role in neuroprotection against perinatal brain injury. Dexmedetomidine, a selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, also provides neuroprotection against glutamate-induced damage. Because adrenergic receptor agonists can modulate BDNF expression, our goal was to examine whether(More)
Pelvic trauma can lead to severe, uncontrollable haemorrhage and death related to prolonged shock and multiple organ failure. Massive retroperitoneal haematoma should be assumed to be present in cases of post-traumatic haemodynamic instability associated with pelvic fracture in the absence of extrapelvic haemorrhagic lesions. This review describes the(More)
OBJECTIVES Detailed understanding of tuberculosis (TB) immunopathology and cytokine/chemokine responses can ultimately lead to the development of new diagnostic tools, especially useful in children where TB diagnosis remains challenging. METHODS Nineteen cytokine/chemokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) antigens were analyzed in 47(More)
OBJECTIVES An increased rate of indeterminate quantiferon results (low IFN-γ release in the phytohemagglutinin-stimulated tube) has been reported in children with clinical signs compatible with tuberculosis but with the final diagnosis of infectious diseases different from tuberculosis. Here, we addressed the mechanisms involved and assessed potential(More)
Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between perinatal infection/inflammation and brain damage in preterm infants and/or neurological handicap in survivors. Experimental studies have shown a causal effect of infection/inflammation on perinatal brain damage. Infection including inflammatory factors can disrupt programmes of brain(More)
Perioperative period is very likely to lead to acute renal failure because of anesthesia (general or perimedullary) and/or surgery which can cause acute kidney injury. Characterization of acute renal failure is based on serum creatinine level which is imprecise during and following surgery. Studies are based on various definitions of acute renal failure(More)
The cognitive and behavioural deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than TBI in the mature brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical as children under four years of age sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. Microglia (MG), resident immune cells of the brain(More)