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The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma as well as tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. HTLV-1 is transmitted to T cells through the virological synapse and by extracellular viral assemblies. Here, we uncovered an additional mechanism of virus transmission that is regulated by the(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is characterized by life-long persistence of the virus in the host. While most infected individuals remain asymptomatic, 3-5% will eventually develop adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) or tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) after a clinical latency that can span years(More)
Disease development in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals is positively correlated with the level of integrated viral DNA in T cells. HTLV-1 replication is positively regulated by Tax and Rex and negatively regulated by the p30 and HBZ proteins. In the present study, we demonstrate that HTLV-1 encodes another negative regulator(More)
The human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ORF-I encodes a 99-amino acid hydrophobic membrane protein, p12(I), that affects receptors in different cellular compartments. We report here that proteolytic cleavage dictates different cellular localization and functions of p12(I). The removal of a noncanonical endoplasmic reticulum (ER)(More)
The identification of the genes necessary for human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) persistence in humans may provide targets for therapeutic approaches. We demonstrate that ablation of the HTLV-1 genes encoding p12, p30, or the HBZ protein, does not affect viral infectivity in rabbits and in this species, only the absence of HBZ is associated with a(More)
The role of antibodies directed against the hyper variable envelope region V1 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has not been thoroughly studied. We show that a vaccine able to elicit strain-specific non-neutralizing antibodies to this region of gp120 is associated with control of highly pathogenic chimeric SHIV(89.6P) replication in rhesus(More)
Hereditary forms of bone marrow failure and aplastic anaemia (AA) manifest in rare blood syndromes (Dyskeratosis Congenita, Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia and Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome) in which genetic abnormalities directly impair ribosome biogenesis. These conditions are all associated with varying degrees of predisposition to haematological malignancy.(More)
The licensed smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000, is a cell culture derivative of Dryvax. Both ACAM2000 and Dryvax are administered by skin scarification and can cause progressive vaccinia, with skin lesions that disseminate to distal sites. We have investigated the immunologic basis of the containment of vaccinia in the skin with the goal to identify safer vaccines(More)
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of an aggressive malignancy of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Since the viral transactivator Tax-1 is a major player in T-cell transformation, targeting Tax-1 protein is regarded as a possible strategy to arrest viral replication and to counteract neoplastic transformation. We demonstrate that(More)
The non-structural proteins encoded by the orf-I, II, III, and IV genes of the human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) genome, are critical for the modulation of cellular gene expression and T-cell proliferation, the escape from cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer cells, and virus expression. In here, we review the main functions of the HTLV-1(More)