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Uncoupling proteins (UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3) are important in regulating cellular fuel metabolism and as attenuators of reactive oxygen species production through strong or mild uncoupling. The generic function and broad tissue distribution of the uncoupling protein family means that they are increasingly implicated in a range of pathophysiological processes(More)
Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins disengage substrate oxidation from ADP phosphorylation by dissipating the proton electrochemical gradient that is required for ATP synthesis. In doing this, the archetypal uncoupling protein, UCP1, mediates adaptive thermogenesis. By contrast, its paralogues UCP2 and UCP3 are not thought to mediate whole body thermogenesis(More)
Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is implicated in a wide range of pathophysiological processes, including immunity and diabetes mellitus, but its rapid degradation remains uncharacterized. Using pharmacological proteasome inhibitors, immunoprecipitation, dominant negative ubiquitin mutants, [corrected] cellular fractionation and siRNA techniques,(More)
Mitochondria generate reactive oxygen species, whose downstream lipid peroxidation products, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, induce uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by increasing proton leak through mitochondrial inner membrane proteins such as the uncoupling proteins and adenine nucleotide translocase. Using mitochondria from rat liver, which lack(More)
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. UCP2 content, measured by calibrated immunoblot in INS-1E insulinoma cells (a pancreatic beta-cell model) grown in RPMI medium, and INS-1E mitochondria, was 2.0 ng/million cells (7.9 ng/mg mitochondrial protein). UCP2 content was lower in cells incubated(More)
Muscle myosins are molecular motors that convert the chemical free energy available from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical displacement of actin filaments, bringing about muscle contraction. Myosin cross-bridges exert force on actin filaments during a cycle of attached and detached states that are coupled to each round of ATP hydrolysis. Contraction and ATPase(More)
Glucose intolerance in C57Bl/6 mice has been associated with mutations in the nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) gene. It has been proposed that the absence of NNT from mitochondria leads to increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and subsequent activation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Activation of UCP2 has been suggested(More)
UCP3 (uncoupling protein 3) and its homologues UCP2 and UCP1 are regulators of mitochondrial function. UCP2 is known to have a short half-life of approx. 1 h, owing to its rapid degradation by the cytosolic 26S proteasome, whereas UCP1 is turned over much more slowly by mitochondrial autophagy. In the present study we investigate whether UCP3 also has a(More)
Mitochondria play vital roles in metabolic energy transduction, intermediate molecule metabolism, metal ion homeostasis, programmed cell death and regulation of the production of reactive oxygen species. As a result of their broad range of functions, mitochondria have been strongly implicated in aging and longevity. Numerous studies show that aging and(More)
Pancreatic β-cells have remarkable bioenergetics in which increased glucose supply upregulates the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio and increases insulin secretion. This arrangement allows glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) to be regulated by the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) modulates coupling efficiency and(More)