Vesper Fe Marie Llaneza Ramos

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Sensory tricks are various manoeuvres that can ameliorate dystonia. Common characteristics are well known, but their variety is wide, sensory stimulation is not necessarily the critical feature, and their physiology is unknown. To enumerate the various forms of sensory tricks and describe their nature, research findings and theories that may elucidate their(More)
Psychogenic dystonia is a challenging entity to diagnose and treat because little is known about its pathophysiology. We describe two cases of psychogenic dystonia who underwent deep brain stimulation when thought to have organic dystonia. The intraoperative microelectrode recordings in globus pallidus internus were retrospectively compared with those of(More)
The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest interstimulus interval at which a subject can perceive successive stimuli as separate. To investigate the effects of aging on TDT, we studied tactile TDT using the method of limits with 120% of sensory threshold in each hand for each of 100 healthy volunteers, equally divided among men and women,(More)
Introduction. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is an established technique to investigate synaptic plasticity in the human motor cortex (M1). Classically, to induce long-term depression- (LTD-) or long-term potentiation-like effects in the human M1, studies have used low frequency and long duration trains of PAS. In the present study, we explored an(More)
A 62-year-old woman with no known psychiatric illness had a 1.5-year history of progressive personality and language changes, leading to a loss of functional independence. Laboratory results revealed elevated autoimmune antibodies. She did not improve on high-dose steroid therapy and continued to deteriorate to her death, 2.5 years(More)
Botulinum toxin is a mainstay therapy for dystonia. Formulations available are three types of botulinumtoxinA and one type of botulinumtoxinB.(1) Antibodies can develop against the toxin, leading to treatment failure. IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin; Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany) is differentiated from other types of botulinumtoxinA(More)
Dear Editor, Tremor is a common clinical feature in dystonia. It can be seen in both affected and unaffected body parts in patients with dystonia. Clinically, it may not be easily distinguishable from essential tremor, currently defined as a bilateral, largely symmetric postural or kinetic tremor involving the hands and forearms that is visible and(More)