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The impact of intrinsic aging upon human peripheral blood T cell subsets remains incompletely quantified and understood. This impact must be distinguished from the influence of latent persistent microorganisms, particularly CMV, which has been associated with age-related changes in the T cell pool. In a cross-sectional cohort of 152 CMV-negative(More)
Agonists of TLR have been explored as vaccine adjuvants for tumor immunotherapy. However, their immunological consequences are not fully understood. Although TLR signaling increases the functional potential of dendritic cells (DCs) for priming T cells, coinduction of potentially negative immunoregulatory capacities may impair effector T cell generation. We(More)
Protective T‑cell immunity against cancer and infections is dependent on the generation of a durable effector and memory T‑cell pool. Studies from cancer and chronic infections reveal that B7-H1 (PD-L1) engagement with its receptor PD-1 promotes apoptosis of effector T cells. It is not clear how B7-H1 regulates T‑cell apoptosis and the subsequent impact of(More)
The number of naive T cells decreases and susceptibility to new microbial infections increases with age. Here we describe a previously unknown subset of phenotypically naive human CD8(+) T cells that rapidly secreted multiple cytokines in response to persistent viral antigens but differed transcriptionally from memory and effector T cells. The frequency of(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are important regulators of T cell immunity. The degree of stimulation, the pattern of costimulatory molecules expressed, and the cytokines secreted by DC dictate the nature of the effector and memory cells generated, particularly with respect to their Th1 or Th2 phenotypes. In this study, we demonstrate that the addition of activated(More)
An immunoinhibitory role of B7 homologue 1 (B7-H1) expressed by non-T cells has been established; however, the function of B7-H1 expressed by T cells is not clear. Peak expression of B7-H1 on Ag-primed CD8 T cells was observed during the contraction phase of an immune response. Unexpectedly, B7-H1 blockade at this stage reduced the numbers of effector CD8 T(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging global pathogen with pandemic potential, which causes fever, rash and debilitating arthralgia. Older adults over 65 years are particularly susceptible to severe and chronic CHIKV disease (CHIKVD), accounting for >90% of all CHIKV-related deaths. There are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral treatments(More)
Age-related changes in primary lymphoid organs are well described. Less is known about age-related changes affecting peripheral lymphoid organs, although defects in old peripheral lymph nodes (pLN) were recently described in both steady state and during viral infection. To address whether such pLN defects were intrinsic to old T cells or extrinsic (due to(More)