Vesa M. Loitto

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Understanding filopodial formation in motile cells is a pertinent task in cell biology. In the present study we show that expression of the human water channel aquaporin-9 (AQP9) in different cell lines induces the formation of numerous filopodial extensions. Several lines of evidence support the role of aquaporins functioning both as a water channel and(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanism by which anaesthetic agents produce general anaesthesia is not yet fully understood. Retraction of neurites is an important function of individual neurones and neural plexuses during normal and pathological conditions, and it has been shown that such a retraction pathway exists in developing and mature neurones. We hypothesized that(More)
Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine,(More)
All modes of cell migration require rapid rearrangements of cell shape, allowing the cell to navigate within narrow spaces in an extracellular matrix. Thus, a highly flexible membrane and a dynamic cytoskeleton are crucial for rapid cell migration. Cytoskeleton dynamics and tension also play instrumental roles in the formation of different specialized cell(More)
Pigment organelles in Xenopus laevis melanophores are used by the animal to change skin color, and they provide a good model for studying intracellular organelle transport. Movement of organelles and vesicles along the cytoskeleton is essential for many processes, such as axonal transport, endocytosis, and intercompartmental trafficking. Nitric oxide (NO)(More)
The ability of neutrophils to sense and move to sites of infection is essential for our defense against pathogens. For motility, lamellipodium extension and stabilization are prerequisites, but how cells form such membrane protrusions is still obscure. Using contrast-enhanced video microscopy and Transwell assays, we show that water-selective aquaporin(More)
We exposed adherent neutrophils to the nitric oxide (NO)-radical donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to study the role of NO in morphology and Ca(2+) signaling. Parallel to video imaging of cell morphology and migration in neutrophils, changes in intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i))(More)
Transmembrane water fluxes through aquaporins (AQPs) are suggested to play pivotal roles in cell polarization and directional cell motility. Local dilution by water influences the dynamics of the subcortical actin polymerization and directs the formation of nascent membrane protrusions. In this paper, recent evidence is discussed in support of such a(More)
Neutrophils are of prime importance in the host innate defense against invading microorganisms by using two primary mechanisms-locomotion toward and phagocytosis of the prey. Recent research points to pivotal roles for water channels known as AQPs in cell motility. Here, we focused on the role of AQP9 in chemoattractant-induced polarization and migration of(More)
BACKGROUND Interactions between nanoparticles and cells are now the focus of a fast-growing area of research. Though many nanoparticles interact with cells without any acute toxic responses, metal oxide nanoparticles including those composed of titanium dioxide (TiO2-NPs) may disrupt the intracellular process of macroautophagy. Autophagy plays a key role in(More)