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The aim of this study was to produce a dynamic model of the spatiotemporal activation of ensembles of alpha motoneurons (MNs) in the cat lumbosacral spinal cord during the locomotor step cycle. The coordinates of MNs of 27 hindlimb muscles of the cat were digitized from transverse sections of spinal cord spanning the entire lumbosacral enlargement from the(More)
In a study on descending pathways from the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) to hindlimb motoneurons (see accompanying paper), it appeared impossible, using data from the literature, to precisely determine which muscles were innervated by the motoneurons receiving the NRA fibers. This lack of data made it necessary to produce a detailed map of the lumbosacral(More)
Information regarding the organization of the CNS in terms of neurotransmitter systems and spinal connections in the mouse is sparse, especially at the level of the brainstem. An overview is presented of monoaminergic and cholinergic systems in the brainstem and spinal cord that were visualized immunohistochemically in inbred C57BL/6 and outbred CD-1 mice.(More)
For many populations of estrogen-sensitive neurons it remains unknown how they are associated with central nervous system circuitries that mediate estrogen-induced modulation of behavioral components. With the use of double-labeling immunohistochemistry and tracing techniques, the relationships of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha- and ER-beta-immunoreactive(More)
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is involved in aggressive and defensive behavior, micturition, and lordosis. Especially for the latter two functions, PAG afferents from the lumbosacral cord are of vital importance because, in addition to information regarding homeostasis and thermoregulation, they convey information from the pelvic viscera and sex organs. In(More)
In patients with obstructive sleep apnea, airway obstruction during sleep produces hypercapnia, which in turn activates respiratory muscles that pump air into the lungs (e.g., the diaphragm) and that dilate and stabilize the upper airway (e.g., the genioglossus). We hypothesized that these responses are facilitated by glutamatergic neurons in the(More)
The distribution pattern of estrogen receptors in the rodent CNS has been reported extensively, but mapping of estrogen receptors in primates is incomplete. In this study we describe the distribution of estrogen receptor alpha immunoreactive (ER-alpha IR) neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of the rhesus monkey. In the midbrain, ER-alpha IR neurons(More)
The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to distinct brainstem and cervical and thoracic cord motoneuronal cell groups. The present paper describes NRA projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement. Lumbosacral injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made to localize and quantify the(More)
The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) consists of premotor neurons in the caudal medulla. It is involved in expiration, vomiting, vocalization, and probably reproductive behavior by means of projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups. Because no information is available about the NRA and its efferent pathways in primates, the present study examines NRA(More)
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a crucial role in reproductive behavior. The present study investigates whether lumbosacral PAG-projecting neurons contain estrogen receptors. In four ovariectomized adult female cats, injections with cholera toxin subunit (CTb) were made into the PAG to retrogradely label PAG projecting neurons in the lumbosacral cord.(More)