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The human brain activity related to strategies for navigating in space and how it changes with practice was investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects used two different strategies to solve a place-learning task in a computer-generated virtual environment. One-half of the subjects used spatial landmarks to navigate in the early phase(More)
Spatial memory tasks, performance of which is known to be sensitive to hippocampal lesions in the rat, or to medial temporal lesions in the human, were administered in order to investigate the effects of selective damage to medial temporal lobe structures of the human brain. The patients had undergone thermo-coagulation with a single electrode along the(More)
Multiple recent human imaging studies have suggested that the structure of the brain can change with learning. To investigate the mechanism behind such structural plasticity, we sought to determine whether maze learning in mice induces brain shape changes that are detectable by MRI and whether such changes are specific to the type of learning. Here we(More)
Young healthy participants spontaneously use different strategies in a virtual radial maze, an adaptation of a task typically used with rodents. Functional magnetic resonance imaging confirmed previously that people who used spatial memory strategies showed increased activity in the hippocampus, whereas response strategies were associated with activity in(More)
Several strategies can be used to find a destination in the environment. Using a virtual environment, the authors identified 2 strategies dependent on 2 different memory systems. A spatial strategy involved the use of multiple landmarks available in the environment, and a response strategy involved right and left turns from a given start position. Although(More)
This study sought to investigate navigational strategies across the life span, by testing 8-years old children to 80-years old healthy older adults on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8VM). The 4/8VM was previously developed to assess spontaneous navigational strategies, i.e., hippocampal-dependent spatial strategies (navigation by memorizing relationships(More)
Research with animals suggests that structures within the amygdaloid nuclear complex (ANC) are critical for acquiring associations between rewarding events and neutral stimuli, a form of conditioning often manifested in a subsequent preference for those (conditioned) stimuli. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ANC and preference(More)
Reports of sex differences in wayfinding have typically used paradigms sensitive to the female advantage (navigation by landmarks) or sensitive to the male advantage (navigation by cardinal directions, Euclidian coordinates, environmental geometry, and absolute distances). The current virtual navigation paradigm allowed both men and women an equal(More)
Multiple memory systems are involved in parallel processing of spatial information during navigation. A series of studies have distinguished between hippocampus-dependent 'spatial' navigation, which relies on knowledge of the relationship between landmarks in one's environment to build a cognitive map, and habit-based 'response' learning, which requires the(More)
In a previous experiment with patients who had undergone unilateral temporal thermocoagulation lesions to alleviate intractable epilepsy, we demonstrated that the right parahippocampal cortex was critical for the performance of a spatial memory task (Bohbot et al. (1998) Neuropsychologia 36:1217-1238). Based on this evidence, we predicted that H.M., whose(More)