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The micropylar endosperm cap covering the radicle in the mature seeds of most angiosperms acts as a constraint that regulates seed germination. Here, we report on a comparative seed biology study with the close Brassicaceae relatives Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana showing that ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulate seed germination by a(More)
Plant hormones, cytokinins (CKs), have been for a long time considered to be involved in plant responses to stress. However, their exact roles in processes linked to stress signalization and acclimatization to adverse environmental conditions are unknown. In this study, expression profiles of the entire gene families of CK biosynthetic and degradation genes(More)
Phytochromes phyB and phyA mediate a remarkable developmental switch whereby, early upon seed imbibition, canopy light prevents phyB-dependent germination, whereas later on, it stimulates phyA-dependent germination. Using a seed coat bedding assay where the growth of dissected embryos is monitored under the influence of dissected endosperm, allowing(More)
Under the canopy, far-red (FR) light represses seed germination by inactivating phytochrome photoreceptors. This elicits a decrease in gibberellins (GA) levels and an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) levels. GA promotes germination by enhancing the proteasome-mediated destruction of DELLA repressors. ABA prevents germination by stimulating the expression of(More)
Seed germination is an important life-cycle transition because it determines subsequent plant survival and reproductive success. To detect optimal spatiotemporal conditions for germination, seeds act as sophisticated environmental sensors integrating information such as ambient temperature. Here we show that the delay of germination 1 (DOG1) gene, known for(More)
The origin of phytohormones is poorly understood, and their physiological roles in microalgae remain elusive. Genome comparison of photosynthetic autotrophic eukaryotes has revealed that the biosynthetic pathways of abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins (CKs) emerged in unicellular algae. While ABA and CK degradation mechanisms emerged broadly in algal(More)
Responses to drought, heat, and combined stress were compared in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants ectopically expressing the cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase CKX1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana L. under the control of either the predominantly root-expressed WRKY6 promoter or the constitutive 35S promoter, and in the wild type. WRKY6:CKX1 plants exhibited(More)
Hormonal changes accompanying the cold stress (4°C) response that are related to the level of frost tolerance (FT; measured as LT50) and the content of the most abundant dehydrin, WCS120, were compared in the leaves and crowns of the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Samanta and the spring wheat cv. Sandra. The characteristic feature of the alarm(More)
We have developed a simple method for extracting and purifying (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) and eight ABA metabolites--phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), neophaseic acid (neoPA), ABA-glucose ester (ABAGE), 7'-hydroxy-ABA (7'-OH-ABA), 9'-hydroxy-ABA (9'-OH-ABA), ABAaldehyde, and ABAalcohol--before analysis by a novel technique for these substances,(More)
Plant hormones act as chemical messengers in the regulation of myriads of physiological processes that occur in plants. To date, nine groups of plant hormones have been identified and more will probably be discovered. Furthermore, members of each group may participate in the regulation of physiological responses in planta both alone and in concert with(More)