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Reproduction in plants often requires animal vectors. Fruit and flower colors are traditionally viewed as an adaptation to facilitate detection for pollinators and seed dispersers. This longstanding hypothesis predicts that fruits are easier to detect against their own leaves compared with those of different species. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing(More)
Fundamental concepts about the diversity and evolution of signals have been developed mainly in the context of sexual selection. Here, we review the functional ecology of signals in a different context, that of plant–animal interactions. The visual signals of fruits and flowers are relatively constant and clear in the message that they convey. Thus, plant(More)
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