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Perceptual implicit memory for previously attended and unattended words was measured either in a word-stem completion task or in a perceptual fluency (perceptual identification) task. Subjects (N = 144) first engaged in a focused attention task in which they were to identify one of two words presented for 100, 200, or 300 msec. Words were classified as(More)
Subjects performed a visual target-detection task in eight experiments. We examined the effects of word relevancy (word in relevant or irrelevant location) and display load (1-4 words) on physical, semantic, and controlled processing of nontargets. Interwoven with the detection task was a test-word identification task that was used to measure priming(More)
A distinction is drawn between intraperceptual and extraperceptual theories of attention. Only the former class allows for the selective modulation of amount of nonconscious, perceptual processing of concurrent stimuli. The adequacy of intraperceptual theory has been questioned on the basis of diverse empirical findings. This literature is critically(More)
Semantic and spatial effects on selective processing were examined. A prime presented 250 ms or 1,000 ms before a pair of masked words was related to 1 of the words on 1/3 of the trials. Although Experiments 1 and 2 required report of both words, processing was selective; typically, just 1 word could be reported. In Experiment 1, reported words were more(More)
Weber, Burt, and Noll (1986) estimated that the time needed to switch attention between memory and perception was around 300 msec. The first two experiments in the present paper estimated switching time using a variation of their task. Subjects reported aloud lists of six items. The items were read off a computer screen (perception), recited from memory, or(More)
In two experiments, we examined whether the encoding processes leading to perceptual implicit memory satisfied the intentionality and load insensitivity criteria for automaticity. Whether participants intended to process words or digits, in displays containing both, was manipulated in Experiment 1. Results showed an effect of intention on a subsequent(More)
Results from research with the flanker task have been used to argue both that flankers are identified without attention and that flanker identification requires attention. In three experiments, we addressed this issue by examining flanker recall. In Experiment 1, we manipulated flanker redundancy, a variable that could influence attention to the flankers,(More)
The proportion of peripheral cues that predicted at which of two locations a discrimination target would occur was manipulated in three experiments. Near cues occurred adjacent to the target and far cues occurred adjacent to the other location. In Experiment 1, near and far cues were presented in separate blocks so each predicted target location. Both types(More)