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During rat cortical development, when neurons migrate from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate, GABA localizes within the target destinations of migratory neurons. At this time, cells in germinal zones and along migratory pathways express GABA receptor subunit transcripts, implying that in vivo, GABA may be a chemoattractant. We used an in vitro(More)
Activation of a mouse in vitro neuromuscular synapse produces a reduction in synaptic efficacy which is greater for nonactivated than for activated inputs to the myotubes. This has been shown to require thrombin and thrombin receptor activation and to involve a protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated step. We show in the present work that phorbol ester activation(More)
Activity-dependent selective reduction of synaptic efficacy is expressed in an in vitro system involving mouse spinal cord and muscle cells. Thrombin or electrical stimulation of the innervating axons induces a decrease in neuromuscular synapse strength, and a specific thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, blocks the electrically evoked down-regulation of synapse(More)
A compartmental nerve-muscle tissue culture system expresses Hebbian activity-dependent synapse modulation. Protein kinase C (PKC) mediates a heterosynaptic loss of efficacy, and we now show that protein kinase A (PKA) is involved in homosynaptic stabilization. Both work through postsynaptic changes in the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) as measured(More)
Embryonic rat hippocampal neurons were cultured on poly-D-lysine (PDL) or a monolayer of postnatal cortical astrocytes to reveal putative changes in neuronal physiology that involve astrocyte-derived signals during the first 4 d of culture, GABA-induced Cl- current (IGABA) was quantified using outside-out and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings beginning at(More)
Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is associated with a high incidence of Alzheimer disease and with deficits in cholinergic function in humans. We used the trisomy 16 (Ts16) mouse model for Down syndrome to identify the cellular basis for the cholinergic dysfunction. Cholinergic neurons and cerebral cortical astroglia, obtained separately from Ts16 mouse fetuses(More)
We used patch-clamp recording techniques to investigate the contribution of GABA to baseline membrane properties in cultured embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. Almost all of the neurons recorded with Cl−-filled pipettes and clamped at negative potentials exhibited baselines that were noticeably noisy, with microscopic fluctuations superimposed on the(More)
OBJECTIVE Cerebral palsy (CP) is characterized by motor deficits. There is increasing evidence that CP may result from inflammatory and infection-mediated white matter damage. Our objective was to develop an inflammatory model for CP based on chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure with a recognizable phenotype in offspring. STUDY DESIGN On gestational(More)
We have used a three compartment tissue culture system that involved two separate populations of cholinergic neurons in the side compartments that converged on a common target population of myotubes in the center compartment. Activation of the axons from one population of neurons produced selective down-regulation of the synaptic inputs from the other(More)