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The objective of this study was to supply information about: (1) normal gender-based dimensions of ears (linear distances and ratios, area); (2) left right symmetry; and (3) growth changes between adolescence and mid-adulthood. The three-dimensional co-ordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the ears and face were obtained by an electromagnetic(More)
The 3-dimensional (3-D) inclination of the facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC) and the size of the clinical crowns were measured in 100 white northern Italians. The subjects consisted of 22 girls and 21 boys, ages 13-15 years (adolescents), and 31 women and 26 men, ages 16-26 years (adults), all with a complete permanent dentition and Class I dental(More)
The influence of occlusal conditions on stomatognathic function can be assessed by electromyography. Electromyographic activity of left and right temporal and masseter muscles was recorded in 30 young healthy adults with a normal occlusion during: (1) a 3-s maximum voluntary clench on cotton rolls positioned on the posterior teeth (standardization(More)
The normal growth, development, and aging of facial soft tissues was studied by three-dimensional (3D) computerized mesh diagram analysis. The 3D coordinates of 50 soft-tissue landmarks were collected from 591 healthy white northern Italians (351 males, 240 females) 6-40 years of age. For each gender and age class, mean values were computed, and a(More)
The normal growth and development of facial soft tissues from 6 years to adulthood has been studied by the 3D computerized mesh diagram analysis. The analysis allows independent quantifications of size and shape modifications both between different age groups, and between males and females. Normal age-related and sex-related references are provided. The(More)
A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth(More)
One of the aims of the present investigation was to assess three-dimensionally the anteroposterior discrepancy of dental bases using a noninvasive direct procedure. A second aim was to verify the relationship of three-dimensional soft-tissue measurement to the well-established two-dimensional cephalometric assessments of anteroposterior discrepancy. Dental(More)
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