Veronica Beuzenberg

Learn More
A simple and sensitive in situ method for monitoring the occurrence of toxic algal blooms and shellfish contamination events has been developed. The technique involves the passive adsorption of biotoxins onto porous synthetic resin filled sachets (SPATT bags) and their subsequent extraction and analysis. The success of the method is founded on the(More)
We have developed a simple and effective method for isolating pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) from Dinophysis cells collected from a natural bloom. A two-step extraction procedure followed by two column chromatography steps produced PTX-2 in high purity suitable for use as an analytical standard and for toxicological studies. Incubation of purified PTX-2 with the(More)
Toxin profiles were determined in phytoplankton cell concentrates and Greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus) exposed to a dinoflagellate bloom dominated by Dinophysis acuta and Protoceratium reticulatum. This was achieved by using a method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of a variety of micro-algal toxins by liquid(More)
Preparative HPLC purification of a side-fraction obtained during purification of 44,55-dihydroxyyessotoxin (6) afforded fractions containing previously unidentified yessotoxin analogues. Careful analysis of these fractions by HPLC-UV, LC-MS3, and NMR spectroscopy, revealed the identities of some of these analogues as 45-hydroxy-46,47-dinoryessotoxin (1),(More)
The effects of the shellfish toxin gymnodimine and its analogues (gymnodimine acetate, gymnodimine methyl carbonate and gymnodamine) on cellular viability were tested using the Neuro2a neuroblastoma cell line. Concentrations of toxins up to 10μM had variable effects on reducing cell number as determined using the MTT assay and no effects on the expression(More)
The 1,3-enone isomer (1) of heptanor-41-oxoyessotoxin (2) was isolated from extracts of Protoceratium reticulatum during large-scale production of yessotoxin (4). We found that 2 readily isomerizes to 1 in the presence of dilute ammonia and present evidence for the existence of 40-epi-2 (3) that also isomerizes to 1. 1-3 were detected by LC-MS methods both(More)
The acute toxicity of the phycotoxin gymnodimine to female Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection and by oral administration has been determined. Gymnodimine was highly toxic by injection, the LD50 being only 96 microg/kg. Animals either died within 10 min of injection or made a full recovery with no perceptible long-term effects. Gymnodimine was also(More)
The acid-catalyzed inter-conversion of spiroketal isomers of pectenotoxins PTX1, PTX6 and PTX2 were studied by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Using a C8-silica reversed-phase column and a mobile phase of aqueous acetonitrile containing 2 mM ammonium formate and 50 mM formic acid, the known spiroketal(More)
Pectenotoxins (PTXs) accumulate in shellfish feeding on dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis, so that humans can be exposed to these toxins through shellfish consumption. Some PTXs are toxic to experimental animals, whereas others are of much lower toxicity. Pectenotoxin-2, the most abundant PTX from most Dinophysis spp., is rapidly metabolized by most(More)
Two analogs of yessotoxin were isolated from extracts of a culture of Protoceratium reticulatum. The structures of the analogs were identified as trihydroxylated amides of 41a-homoyessotoxin (1) and 9-methyl-41a-homoyessotoxin (2) by one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS3 analyses. Structures were further confirmed by micro-scale(More)