Vernon Edward Gracen

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C4 plants can be divided into three groups based on differences in activities of three decarboxylating enzymes: NADP-malic enzyme, NAD-malic enzyme, and phosphopyruvate carboxykinase. In the Gramineae the three C4 groups are distinguished by anatomical and ultrastructural characteristics of bundle-sheath chloroplasts. NADP-malic enzyme species lack(More)
Consolidates relevant molecular and phenotypic information on cassava to demonstrate relevance of heterosis, and alternatives to exploit it by integrating different tools. Ideas are useful to other asexually reproduced crops. Asexually propagated crops offer the advantage that all genetic effects can be exploited in farmers’ production fields. However,(More)
Introduced maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm can serve as sources of favorable alleles to enhance performance in new maize varieties and hybrids under drought stress conditions. In the present study, the combining abilities of 12 exotic maize inbred lines from CIMMYT and 12 adapted maize inbred lines from IITA were studied for grain yield and other traits under(More)
The genetics of fertility restoration of cms-C group cytoplasm of maize was studied using crosses involving stable maintainer lines and lines that restored full pollen fertility. Pollen fertility in the sources of cms-C sterile cytoplasms studied was restored by a single dominant restorer (Rf4) gene. The fertility restoration was sporophytic. Allelism tests(More)
Plants were regenerated from callus cultures of maize inbred W182BN with the S(USDA) type of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms). Some regenerates from 16 of 18 separate cultures had fertile tassels. Many other regenerates, whose fertility could not be scored accurately because of abnormal plant morphology, produced fertile progeny after pollination with N(More)
Early bulking in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a very important trait in semi-arid ecologies of the tropics. Farmers tend to select early-maturing cassava varieties to escape terminal drought and destruction by domestic animals during the dry season. However, early harvesting is associated with yield penalty due to unavailability of high-yielding(More)
High yields of mesophyll protoplasts were obtained from leaves of corn (Zea mays L., inbred W64A). Many protoplasts survived a week in the dark in a simple osmoticum. Culture filtrate from Helminthosporium maydis race T at dilutions of 1:10,000 to 1:20,000 destroyed protoplasts with Texas male-sterile (T) cytoplasm. Substantial damage to protoplasts with(More)
The tropical grasses sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens) contained fewer leaf microbodies than temperate orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata). Leaf microbodies were seen in both the mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of tropical grasses. The fibrous elements in the microbodies of tropical grasses differed from those of the(More)
The mechanism by which Helminthosporium maydis race T toxin inhibits respiration dependent on NAD(+)-linked substrates in T cytoplasm corn mitochondria was investigated. The toxin did not cause leakage of the soluble matrix enzyme malate dehydrogenase from the mitochondria or inhibit malate dehydrogenase or isocitrate dehydrogenase directly. The toxin did(More)
Zea mays inbred W64A in Texas (T, toxin sensitive) male sterile and non-male sterile (N, toxin resistant) cytoplasms were utilized. Roots of freshly germinated seeds were treated for 15 min of 2 hr with culture filtrate from liquid grown Helminthosporium maydis Race T, or with a chloroform extractable purified fraction from the culture filtrate. In the(More)