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The peptides in the venoms of predatory marine snails belonging to the genus Conus ('cone snails') have well-established therapeutic applications for the treatment of pain and epilepsy. This review discusses the neuroprotective and cardioprotective potential of four families of Conus peptides (conopeptides), including omega-conotoxins that target(More)
Neurosteroids are endogenous neuromodulators that bind and allosterically regulate GABA(A) receptors. Residues were recently identified in the first transmembrane domain (M1) of GABA(A) receptor subunits that are important for neurosteroid modulation. We are studying the inhibition of GABA(A) receptors by sulfated neurosteroids. One of these neurosteroid,(More)
We report the discovery and characterization of three conantokin peptides from the venom of Conus parius. Each peptide (conantokin-Pr1, -Pr2, and -Pr3) contains 19 amino acids with three gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues, a post-translationally modified amino acid characteristic of conantokins. The new peptides contain several amino acid residues that(More)
Conantokins are venom peptides from marine cone snails that are NMDA receptor antagonists. Here, we report the characterization of a 24 AA conantokin from Conus brettinghami Coomans , H. E. , Moolenbeek , R. G. and Wils , E. ( 1982 ) Basteria 46 ( 1/4 ), 3 - 67 , conantokin-Br (con-Br), the first conantokin that does not have the conserved glutamate residue(More)
Using molecular phylogeny has accelerated the discovery of peptidic ligands targeted to ion channels and receptors. One clade of venomous cone snails, Asprella, appears to be significantly enriched in conantokins, antagonists of N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Here, we describe the characterization of two novel conantokins from Conus rolani,(More)
A multidisciplinary strategy for discovery of new Conus venom peptides combines molecular genetics and phylogenetics with peptide chemistry and neuropharmacology. Here we describe application of this approach to the conantokin family of conopeptides targeting NMDA receptors. A new conantokin from Conus rolani, ConRl-A, was identified using molecular(More)
The conantokins are a family of Conus venom peptides (17-27AA) that are N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. Conantokins lack disulfide bridges (six out of seven previously characterized peptides are linear), but contain multiple residues of gamma-carboxyglutamate. These post-translationally modified amino acids confer the largely helical(More)
Previously we defined neuronal subclasses within the mouse peripheral nervous system using an experimental strategy called "constellation pharmacology." Here we demonstrate the broad applicability of constellation pharmacology by extending it to the CNS and specifically to the ventral respiratory column (VRC) of mouse brainstem, a region containing the(More)
In order to decode the roles that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and neuropathologies, there is need for ligands that differ in their subtype selectivity. The conantokin family of Conus peptides is the only group of peptidic natural products known to target NMDA receptors. Using a search that(More)
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