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The adipose tissue has recently emerged as an important endocrine organ releasing numerous mediators including adipocytokines, classical cytokines and others. Adiponectin, one of the major products of adipocytes, is a prototypic anti-diabetic adipocytokine, the actions of which are mainly exerted by the activation of AMP-activated kinase and peroxisome(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is characterised by neutrophil infiltration that contributes to hepatic injury and disease. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) was originally identified as siderophore binding peptide in neutrophils, which exerted tissue protective effects in several disease models. Here we investigate the role of LCN2 in the pathogenesis(More)
Obesity and obesity-related disorders have dramatically increased globally in the last decades. These entities are commonly associated with a state of insulin resistance and the relationship between extensive lipid deposition and insulin resistance is widely accepted. The underlying mechanisms for insulin resistance, however, are still incompletely(More)
Diseases of the liver and the biliary tract are commonly observed in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Besides primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), drug-induced hepatotoxicity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the most frequent liver complications in IBD. PSC is a chronic inflammatory and commonly progressive disorder of(More)
Dietary factors and the associated lifestyle play a major role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. Several diets, especially a Western lifestyle with a high consumption of meat and carbohydrates and a low consumption of vegetables, have been linked to common diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and colon(More)
Adipocytokines are primarily adipocyte-derived products, although certain members are also synthesized by other cell types. These adipocytokines, similarly to classical cytokines, are characterized by very pleiotropic functions affecting biological processes throughout the body. An increasing number of adipocytokines has recently been recognized, such as(More)
The innate immune system and its major mediators, i.e., cytokines, are increasingly recognized as being of crucial importance in metabolic inflammation as observed in morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Morbid obesity is commonly associated with adipose tissue inflammation. Adipose tissue inflammation is characterized by an increased expression of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Severe obesity is associated with a state of chronic inflammation. Sirtuins (SIRT) are a family of conserved enzymes which are able to affect many metabolic and inflammatory pathways thereby potentially improving health and increasing lifespan. METHODS We investigated the effect of weight loss on subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver(More)
OBJECTIVE Alcoholic steatohepatitis is a life-threatening condition with short-term mortality up to 40%. It features hepatic neutrophil infiltration and blood neutrophilia, and may evolve from ethanol-induced breakdown of the enteric barrier and consequent bacteraemia. Signalling through CXCR1/2 G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCRs), the interleukin (IL)-8(More)
OBJECTIVE Low-grade chronic inflammation emerges as a potent driver of insulin resistance and glucose dysregulation in obesity and associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver, subcutaneous fat and the immune system participate in disturbances of metabolism. Type I interferon (IFN) signalling initiated by innate and adaptive immunity(More)