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This article summarizes our progress with RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) during the past 2 years. We have kept up-to-date the knowledge from the published literature regarding transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. We have maintained and expanded our curation efforts to improve the breadth and quality of the encoded experimental(More)
RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) is the primary reference database of the best-known regulatory network of any free-living organism, that of Escherichia coli K-12. The major conceptual change since 3 years ago is an expanded biological context so that transcriptional regulation is now part of a unit that initiates with the signal and continues with(More)
EcoCyc (http://EcoCyc.org) is a model organism database built on the genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. Expert manual curation of the functions of individual E. coli gene products in EcoCyc has been based on information found in the experimental literature for E. coli K-12-derived strains. Updates to EcoCyc content continue to improve the(More)
It has previously been shown that phosphorylated nitrogen regulator I (NRI-phosphate) is the activator responsible for increasing the transcription of glnA, the structural gene for glutamine synthetase, and that NRII catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-phosphate of ATP to NRI. We have now shown that the reaction of ATP with NRII results in the reversible(More)
Signal transduction by two-component systems involves phosphorylation and thereby activation of the response regulator by the cognate histidine kinase. Bifunctional histidine kinases have two opposing activities: depending on the environmental stimuli they either promote phosphorylation or stimulate the rapid dephosphorylation of the response regulator. To(More)
We studied the effect of phosphorylation of nitrogen regulator I (NRI) on its binding properties. Both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated NRI bind linearly to a single binding site but cooperatively to two adjacent binding sites. Cooperative binding of NRI is severely affected by phosphorylation: half-maximal binding of NRI-phosphate is at 20-fold lower(More)
During signal transduction, response regulators of two-component systems are phosphorylated in a conserved receiver module. Phosphorylation induces activation of the non-conserved output domain. We fused various domains of the response regulators NtrC, PhoB or CheB to the DNA binding domain of lambda repressor. Analysis of these hybrid proteins shows that(More)
Two-component systems are characterized by phosphotransfer reactions involving histidine and aspartate residues in highly conserved signalling domains. Although the basic principles of signal transduction by these systems have been elucidated, several important aspects, such as their integration into more complex cellular regulatory networks and the(More)
Despite the presence of highly conserved signalling modules, significant cross-communication between different two-component systems has only rarely been observed. Domain swapping and the characterization of liberated signalling modules enabled us to characterize in vitro the protein domains that mediate specificity and are responsible for the high fidelity(More)
Intact and proteolytically modified human serpins, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, antithrombin III, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and C1 inhibitor, were compared by circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and resistance against unfolding by guanidine HCl. The modified proteins were prepared from the intact and active inhibitors by selective proteolytic(More)