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Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in humans and will on average affect up to one in eight women in their lifetime in the United States and Europe. The Women's Health Initiative and the Million Women Study have shown that hormone replacement therapy is associated with an increased risk of incident and fatal breast cancer. In particular,(More)
Malnutrition affects up to one billion people in the world and is a major cause of mortality. In many cases, malnutrition is associated with diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation, further contributing to morbidity and death. The mechanisms by which unbalanced dietary nutrients affect intestinal homeostasis are largely unknown. Here we report that deficiency(More)
Receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand (TNFSF11, also known as RANKL, OPGL, TRANCE, and ODF) and its tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-family receptor RANK are essential regulators of bone remodeling, lymph node formation, establishment of the thymic microenvironment, mammary gland development during pregnancy, and bone metastasis in cancer. We have recently also(More)
Autophagy is a mechanism by which starving cells can control their energy requirements and metabolic states, thus facilitating the survival of cells in stressful environments, in particular in the pathogenesis of cancer. Here we report that tissue-specific inactivation of Atg5, essential for the formation of autophagosomes, markedly impairs the progression(More)
The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and its ligand RANKL are best known for their essential function in bone remodeling and bone-related pathologies such as osteoporosis and arthritis. In humans, dysregulation of the RANK-RANKL system is the major cause of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, appropriate RANKL signaling is also(More)
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer, affecting approximately one in eight women during their life-time. Besides environmental triggers and hormones, inherited mutations in the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) or BRCA2 genes markedly increase the risk for the development of breast cancer. Here, using two different mouse models, we show that genetic(More)
Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) mimic the biochemical effects of nutrient deprivation by reducing lysine acetylation of cellular proteins, thus triggering autophagy. Treatment with the CRM hydroxycitrate, an inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, induced the depletion of regulatory T cells (which dampen anticancer immunity) from autophagy-competent, but not(More)
Cancer cells accommodate multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations that initially activate intrinsic (cell-autonomous) and extrinsic (immune-mediated) oncosuppressive mechanisms. Only once these barriers to oncogenesis have been overcome can malignant growth proceed unrestrained. Tetraploidization can contribute to oncogenesis because hyperploid cells are(More)
Most preneoplastic lesions are quiescent and do not progress to form overt tumors. It has been proposed that oncogenic stress activates the DNA damage response and the key tumor suppressor p53, which prohibits tumor growth. However, the molecular pathways by which cells sense a premalignant state in vivo are largely unknown. Here we report that(More)
RANK and its ligand RANKL are key molecules in bone metabolism and are critically involved in pathologic bone disorders. Deregulation of the RANK/RANKL system is for example a main reason for the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, which affects millions of women worldwide. Another essential function of RANK and RANKL is the development of a(More)