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Macrophages have long been known to play a key role in the healing processes of tissues that regenerate after injury; however, the nature of their involvement in healing of the injured central nervous system (CNS) is still a subject of controversy. Here we show that the absence of regrowth in transected rat optic nerve (which, like all other CNS nerves in(More)
Axons of the mammalian peripheral and central nervous systems degenerate after nerve injury. We have recently found that He-Ne laser irradiation may prevent some of the consequences of the injury in peripheral nerves of mammals. In the present study, the efficacy of the laser in treating injured neurons of the mammalian CNS was tested. Optic nerves of adult(More)
The central nervous systems of mammals and fish differ significantly in their ability to regenerate. Central nervous system axons in the fish readily regenerate after injury, while in mammals they begin to elongate but their growth is aborted at the site of injury, an area previously shown to contain no glial cells. In the present study we compared the(More)
The results of this study attribute to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a role in regeneration of injured mammalian central nervous system (CNS) axons which grow into their own degenerating environment. This is the first time that a specific factor involved in axonal regeneration has been identified. The axonal environment is occupied mostly by glia cells, i.e.,(More)
We have recently shown that cell bodies of an injured optic nerve of adult rabbit can be induced to express regeneration-associated response by external signals derived from nonneuronal cells of regenerating nerves of lower vertebrates. In this study it is shown that even substances derived from a nonregenerating mammalian system also can trigger such a(More)
Failure of axons of the central nervous system in adult mammals to regenerate spontaneously after injury is attributed in part to inhibitory molecules associated with oligodendrocytes. Regeneration of central nervous system axons in fish is correlated with the presence of a transglutaminase. This enzyme dimerizes interleukin-2, and the product is cytotoxic(More)
Spontaneous growth of axons after injury is extremely limited in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). It is now clear, however, that injured CNS axons can be induced to elongate when provided with a suitable environment. Thus injured CNS axons can elongate, but they do not do so unless their environment is altered. We now show apparent regenerative(More)
Regeneration of fish optic nerve (representing regenerative central nervous system) was accompanied by increased activity of regeneration-triggering factors produced by nonneuronal cells. A graft of regenerating fish optic nerve, or a "wrap-around" implant containing medium conditioned by it, induced a response associated with regeneration in injured optic(More)
Morphogenesis and tissue repair require appropriate cross-talk between the cells and their surrounding milieu, which includes extracellular components and soluble factors, e.g., cytokines and growth factors. The present work deals with this communication needed for recovery after axotomy in the central nervous system (CNS). The failure of CNS axons to(More)
Injury to the mammalian central nervous system results in loss of function because of its inability to regenerate. It has been postulated that some axons in the mammalian central nervous system have the ability to regenerate but fail to do so because of the inhospitable nature of surrounding glial cells. For example, mature oligodendrocytes were shown to(More)