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Macrophages have long been known to play a key role in the healing processes of tissues that regenerate after injury; however, the nature of their involvement in healing of the injured central nervous system (CNS) is still a subject of controversy. Here we show that the absence of regrowth in transected rat optic nerve (which, like all other CNS nerves in(More)
Failure of axons of the central nervous system in adult mammals to regenerate spontaneously after injury is attributed in part to inhibitory molecules associated with oligodendrocytes. Regeneration of central nervous system axons in fish is correlated with the presence of a transglutaminase. This enzyme dimerizes interleukin-2, and the product is cytotoxic(More)
The cellular tumour antigen p53 is a protein found in elevated levels in a great variety of transformed cells (reviewed in ref. 1). Overproduction of p53 was observed in cells transformed by a wide spectrum of agents as well as in embryonal carcinoma cells, and in spontaneous transformants. Although initially described in mice, similar p53-like proteins(More)
We have developed an immunization procedure for the production of effective anti-β-amyloid (anti-Aβ) antibodies, using filamentous phage displaying only 4 amino acids. The EFRH sequence, encompassing amino acids 3–6 of the 42 residues of Aβ peptide, was found previously to be the main regulatory site for amyloid modulation and the epitope of(More)
The central nervous systems of mammals and fish differ significantly in their ability to regenerate. Central nervous system axons in the fish readily regenerate after injury, while in mammals they begin to elongate but their growth is aborted at the site of injury, an area previously shown to contain no glial cells. In the present study we compared the(More)
Spontaneous growth of axons after injury is extremely limited in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). It is now clear, however, that injured CNS axons can be induced to elongate when provided with a suitable environment. Thus injured CNS axons can elongate, but they do not do so unless their environment is altered. We now show apparent regenerative(More)
The results of this study attribute to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a role in regeneration of injured mammalian central nervous system (CNS) axons which grow into their own degenerating environment. This is the first time that a specific factor involved in axonal regeneration has been identified. The axonal environment is occupied mostly by glia cells, i.e.,(More)
The gene locus for human cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (SOD-1; superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC is located in or near a region of chromosome 21 known to be involved in Down syndrome. To approach the molecular biology of this genetic disease we have constructed a SOD-1 cDNA clone. Poly(A)-containing RNA enriched for human SOD-1 mRNA was(More)
We have recently shown that cell bodies of an injured optic nerve of adult rabbit can be induced to express regeneration-associated response by external signals derived from nonneuronal cells of regenerating nerves of lower vertebrates. In this study it is shown that even substances derived from a nonregenerating mammalian system also can trigger such a(More)
Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) was cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing CDV DNA were identified by hybridization to a CDV-specific 32P-labeled cDNA. A cDNA clone containing an insert 1,700 base(More)