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Inflammatory cells positive for the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma and for IL-2R, as well as CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and B cells were quantified using an immunoperoxidase technique in 25 fresh myocardial fragments from patients presenting with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. The presence of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens (Ags) in the(More)
Cellular subpopulations that infiltrate the heart in human chronic chagasic myocarditis were defined immunohistochemically in endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens. T cells formed 96.3% of the inflammatory infiltrate, predominantly CD8+ (cytotoxic/suppressor) T cells. The mean numbers of CD8+ and CD4+ (helper) T cells in the myocarditis were compared to(More)
The role of Trypanosoma cruzi in the pathogenesis of myocarditis in the chronic phase of Chagas' disease is still controversial, with autoimmune mechanisms frequently being proposed. In the present work, we demonstrate that higher numbers of CD8+ T cells are correlated with the presence of parasite antigens, suggesting an important role for the parasite in(More)
In 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. This committee eventually evolved into the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. The working component of this international nomenclature society has been The International Working Group for Mapping and(More)
This review discusses the historical aspects, current state of the art, and potential future advances in the areas of nomenclature and databases for the analysis of outcomes of treatments for patients with congenitally malformed hearts. We will consider the current state of analysis of outcomes, lay out some principles which might make it possible to(More)
OBJECTIVE The present work analysed endomyocardial biopsies of patients with acute Chagas' disease in order to evaluate the frequency and intensity of T. cruzi antigens, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to determine the characteristics of this recurrent disease in Venezuela. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twelve endomyocardial biopsies of patients with Chagas' disease, 12 to(More)
A possible relationship between C.pneumoniae (CP) infection, atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction is a debated matter. Now we performed the search of CP in histological segments of fatal ruptured plaques and of stable plaques by histochemistry (Macchiavello stain), immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Electron microscopy and(More)
OBJECTIVE To verify the possible role of adventitial inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and coronary artery remodelling. METHODS We compared the mean numbers of lymphocytes in the adventitia and in the plaque of ruptured thrombosed and stable equi-stenotic coronary segments of 34 patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction. We(More)
To investigate the role played by Trypanosoma cruzi in the pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiopathy, the myocardiums of 12 hearts from individuals who had this condition were mapped in detail. Attempts were made to associate the histopathological lesions observed with the presence of parasitic antigens in the affected tissue. Samples from 26 regions of(More)
BACKGROUND Fetal atrioventricular (AV) block is an uncommon lesion with significant mortality. Because of the rarity of this disorder, the natural course, extensive evaluation of untreated fetuses, and late follow-up remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS Of the 116 consecutive cases of fetal AV block studied from 1988 to 2006, only 1 was terminated, and 75%(More)