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At mucosal surfaces, the immune system should not initiate inflammatory immune responses to the plethora of antigens constantly present in the environment, but should remain poised to unleash a potent assault on intestinal pathogens. The transcriptional programs and regulatory factors required for immune cells to switch from homeostatic (often(More)
MicroRNAs (MiRs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. In this study, we show that MiR-210 is induced by Oct-2, a key transcriptional mediator of B cell activation. Germline deletion of MiR-210 results in the development of autoantibodies from 5 mo of age. Overexpression of MiR-210 in vivo resulted in cell autonomous(More)
As the tissue macrophages of the CNS, microglia are critically involved in diseases of the CNS. However, it remains unknown what controls their maturation and activation under homeostatic conditions. We observed substantial contributions of the host microbiota to microglia homeostasis, as germ-free (GF) mice displayed global defects in microglia with(More)
Lipids from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are presented through CD1 proteins to T lymphocytes in humans, but the accessory molecules required for antigen loading and presentation remain unidentified. Here we show that fibroblasts deficient in sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) transfected with CD1b failed to activate lipid-specific T cells. However, the T(More)
The epithelium is the main entry point for many viruses, but the processes that protect barrier surfaces against viral infections are incompletely understood. Here we identified interleukin 22 (IL-22) produced by innate lymphoid cell group 3 (ILC3) as an amplifier of signaling via interferon-λ (IFN-λ), a synergism needed to curtail the replication of(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSP) not only function as chaperones for denatured proteins but also for antigenic peptides, thus inducing protective T cell responses. Here we show that vaccination with peptide-loaded HSP70 causes initial interferon-gamma production by murine CD8 T cells but no T cell expansion. These CD8 T cells lacked cytotoxic activity in vitro and(More)
Comparison P-values based on … Bray-Curtis index Jaccard index Il22 –/– vs. WT 0.247 0.244 Litter 5 vs. litter 6 0.358 0.503 Il22 –/– from litter 5 vs. Il22 –/– from litter 6 1 1 WT from litter 5 vs. WT from litter 6 0.396 0.183 Il22 –/– from litter 5 vs. WT from litter 5 1 1 Il22 –/– from litter 6 vs. WT from litter 6 0.1 0.295
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