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At mucosal surfaces, the immune system should not initiate inflammatory immune responses to the plethora of antigens constantly present in the environment, but should remain poised to unleash a potent assault on intestinal pathogens. The transcriptional programs and regulatory factors required for immune cells to switch from homeostatic (often(More)
As the tissue macrophages of the CNS, microglia are critically involved in diseases of the CNS. However, it remains unknown what controls their maturation and activation under homeostatic conditions. We observed substantial contributions of the host microbiota to microglia homeostasis, as germ-free (GF) mice displayed global defects in microglia with(More)
MicroRNAs (MiRs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. In this study, we show that MiR-210 is induced by Oct-2, a key transcriptional mediator of B cell activation. Germline deletion of MiR-210 results in the development of autoantibodies from 5 mo of age. Overexpression of MiR-210 in vivo resulted in cell autonomous(More)
Comparison P-values based on … Bray-Curtis index Jaccard index Il22 –/– vs. WT 0.247 0.244 Litter 5 vs. litter 6 0.358 0.503 Il22 –/– from litter 5 vs. Il22 –/– from litter 6 1 1 WT from litter 5 vs. WT from litter 6 0.396 0.183 Il22 –/– from litter 5 vs. WT from litter 5 1 1 Il22 –/– from litter 6 vs. WT from litter 6 0.1 0.295
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