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For >20 years, noninvasive transcranial stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been used to induce neuroplastic-like effects in the human cortex, leading to the activity-dependent modification of synaptic transmission. Here, we introduce a novel method of electrical(More)
BACKGROUND The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is involved in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. It has been demonstrated that BDNF also plays a significant role in shaping externally induced human brain plasticity. Plasticity induced in the human motor cortex by intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) was impaired in(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a well established procedure for testing and modulating the neuronal excitability of human brain areas, but relatively little is known about the cellular processes induced by this rather coarse stimulus. In a first attempt, we performed extracellular single-unit recordings in the primary visual cortex (area(More)
BACKGROUND Recently we have shown that transcranial random noise (tRNS) and 140 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulations (tACS), applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) and using 10 min stimulation duration and 1 mA intensity, significantly increases cortical excitability as measured by motor evoked potentials at rest before and after(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA with an electrode size of 35 cm(2) has been shown to induce shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. These shifts are polarity-specific with cathodal tDCS resulting in a decrease and anodal stimulation in an increase of cortical(More)
Alleviating the symptoms of neurological diseases by increasing cortical excitability through transcranial stimulation is an ongoing scientific challenge. Here, we tackle this issue by interfering with high frequency oscillations (80–250 Hz) via external application of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over the human motor cortex (M1).(More)
Synchronized oscillatory activity at alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) frequencies plays a key role in motor control. Nevertheless, its exact functional significance has yet to be solved. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) allows the frequency-specific modulation of ongoing oscillatory activity. The goal of the present study was to(More)
Synchronous oscillatory activity at alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz), and gamma (30-90 Hz) frequencies is assumed to play a key role for motor control. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) represents an established measure of the pyramidal system's integrity. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers the possibility to modulate ongoing(More)
The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful tool to investigate brain excitability and information processing in brain networks. However, EEG-TMS recordings are challenging because EEG is contaminated by powerful TMS-related artifacts. Because of these artifacts, different EEG-driven analyses(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the importance of the distance between stimulation electrodes, in various montages, on the ability to induce sustained cortical excitability changes using transcranial direct and random noise stimulation. METHODS Twelve healthy subjects participated in four different experimental conditions. The stimulation electrode was always(More)