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BACKGROUND The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is involved in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. It has been demonstrated that BDNF also plays a significant role in shaping externally induced human brain plasticity. Plasticity induced in the human motor cortex by intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) was impaired in(More)
For >20 years, noninvasive transcranial stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been used to induce neuroplastic-like effects in the human cortex, leading to the activity-dependent modification of synaptic transmission. Here, we introduce a novel method of electrical(More)
BACKGROUND Recently we have shown that transcranial random noise (tRNS) and 140 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulations (tACS), applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) and using 10 min stimulation duration and 1 mA intensity, significantly increases cortical excitability as measured by motor evoked potentials at rest before and after(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a well established procedure for testing and modulating the neuronal excitability of human brain areas, but relatively little is known about the cellular processes induced by this rather coarse stimulus. In a first attempt, we performed extracellular single-unit recordings in the primary visual cortex (area(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA with an electrode size of 35 cm(2) has been shown to induce shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. These shifts are polarity-specific with cathodal tDCS resulting in a decrease and anodal stimulation in an increase of cortical(More)
Synchronized oscillatory activity at alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) frequencies plays a key role in motor control. Nevertheless, its exact functional significance has yet to be solved. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) allows the frequency-specific modulation of ongoing oscillatory activity. The goal of the present study was to(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the importance of the distance between stimulation electrodes, in various montages, on the ability to induce sustained cortical excitability changes using transcranial direct and random noise stimulation. METHODS Twelve healthy subjects participated in four different experimental conditions. The stimulation electrode was always(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor cortex excitability in healthy children and adolescents. METHODS We applied 1mA anodal or cathodal tDCS for 10min on the left primary motor cortex of 19 healthy children and adolescents (mean age 13.9±0.4years). In order to(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising and well-tolerated method of non-invasive brain stimulation, by which cortical excitability can be modulated. However, the effects of tDCS on the developing brain are still unknown, and knowledge about its tolerability in children and adolescents is still lacking. Safety and tolerability of tDCS(More)
Alleviating the symptoms of neurological diseases by increasing cortical excitability through transcranial stimulation is an ongoing scientific challenge. Here, we tackle this issue by interfering with high frequency oscillations (80–250 Hz) via external application of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over the human motor cortex (M1).(More)