Vera M. Kalscheuer

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Noonan syndrome (MIM 163950) is characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphism and cardiac defects. Heterozygous mutations in PTPN11, which encodes SHP-2, cause ∼50% of cases of Noonan syndrome. The SHP-2 phosphatase relays signals from activated receptor complexes to downstream effectors, including Ras. We discovered de novo germline KRAS mutations(More)
Investigation of a critical region for an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) locus led us to identify a novel Aristaless related homeobox gene (ARX ). Inherited and de novo ARX mutations, including missense mutations and in frame duplications/insertions leading to expansions of polyalanine tracts in ARX, were found in nine familial and one sporadic case of(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian brain. Two glycine-binding NR1 subunits and two glutamate-binding NR2 subunits each form highly Ca2+-permeable cation channels which are blocked by extracellular Mg2+ in a voltage-dependent manner. Either GRIN2B or GRIN2A, encoding the NMDA receptor subunits NR2B and(More)
Common diseases are often complex because they are genetically heterogeneous, with many different genetic defects giving rise to clinically indistinguishable phenotypes. This has been amply documented for early-onset cognitive impairment, or intellectual disability, one of the most complex disorders known and a very important health care problem worldwide.(More)
In families with nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation (NS-XLMR), >30% of mutations seem to cluster on proximal Xp and in the pericentric region. In a systematic screen of brain-expressed genes from this region in 210 families with XLMR, we identified seven different mutations in JARID1C, including one frameshift mutation and two nonsense mutations that(More)
X-linked West syndrome, also called "X-linked infantile spasms" (ISSX), is characterized by early-onset generalized seizures, hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation. Recently, we have shown that the majority of the X-linked families with infantile spasms carry mutations in the aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX), which maps to the Xp21.3-p22.1 interval,(More)
As part of a systematic screen for novel imprinted genes of human chromosome 7 we have investigated GRB10, which belongs to a small family of adapter proteins, known to interact with a number of receptor tyrosine kinases and signalling molecules. Upon allele-specific transcription analysis involving multiple distinct splice variants in various fetal(More)
Genes related to the Drosophila melanogaster doublesex and Caenorhabditis elegans mab-3 genes are conserved in human. They are identified by a DNA-binding homology motif, the DM domain, and constitute a gene family (DMRTs). Unlike the invertebrate genes, whose role in the sex-determination process is essentially understood, the function of the different(More)
In mouse, four genes have been found to undergo genomic imprinting resulting in differential expression of maternally and paternally inherited alleles. To determine whether the cognate genes are also subject to imprinting in humans, we have studied allele–specific expression patterns of insulin–like growth factor 2, IGF2–receptor and H19 in human fetal and(More)
The prevalence of intellectual disability is around 3%; however, the etiology of the disease remains unclear in most cases. We identified a series of patients with X-linked intellectual disability presenting mutations in the Rad6a (Ube2a) gene, which encodes for an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Drosophila deficient for dRad6 display defective synaptic(More)