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Previous studies demonstrated that analogs of benztropine (BZT) possess high affinity for the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) but generally have behavioral effects different from those of cocaine, suggesting either unique actions at the DA transporter or that another action of these drugs interferes with cocaine-like effects. Because the parent compound has(More)
Electroencephalogram monitoring is a valuable means of monitoring thalamocortical function in the comatose, sedated, or paralyzed patient in the intensive care unit. The following problems arise especially with long-term recordings that are beyond those experienced in the standard EEG laboratory: 1) faulty electrodes, either single- or multiple-scalp(More)
BACKGROUND Despite synergistic increases in risks of various cancers, the incidence of concomitant smoking and drinking remains high. An additive or synergistic analgesic effect of combined alcohol and nicotine may contribute to their coabuse. Recently, we provided evidence that doses of alcohol and nicotine that are ineffective in inducing an(More)
Both alcohol and nicotine have been shown to possess antinociceptive or analgesic effects. An additive or synergistic antinociceptive effect induced by simultaneous administration of alcohol and nicotine could further contribute to their co-abuse. In this study, we sought to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of various combinations of ethanol and(More)
ATP-gated K(+) channel openers produce antinociception that is attenuated by opioid receptor antagonists, indicating K-ATP openers produce antinociception, in part, via the release of endogenous opioid peptides. Utilizing the spinal perfusion method, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered minoxidil intrathecally (i.t.) at doses ranging from 12.5 to 200(More)
Our laboratory demonstrated that morphine exhibits a modulatory control over the glyburide-binding site (sulfonylurea receptor) of the ATP-gated K(+) channel. This study evaluated the effect of chronic morphine administration on the sulfonylurea receptor during tolerance and physical dependence. ICR and Swiss-Webster mice were rendered tolerant to morphine(More)
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