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Crystal structures of the 30S ribosomal subunit in complex with messenger RNA and cognate transfer RNA in the A site, both in the presence and absence of the antibiotic paromomycin, have been solved at between 3.1 and 3.3 angstroms resolution. Cognate transfer RNA (tRNA) binding induces global domain movements of the 30S subunit and changes in the(More)
The crystal structure of the bacterial 70S ribosome refined to 2.8 angstrom resolution reveals atomic details of its interactions with messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). A metal ion stabilizes a kink in the mRNA that demarcates the boundary between A and P sites, which is potentially important to prevent slippage of mRNA. Metal ions also(More)
Genetic information encoded in messenger RNA is translated into protein by the ribosome, which is a large nucleoprotein complex comprising two subunits, denoted 30S and 50S in bacteria. Here we report the crystal structure of the 30S subunit from Thermus thermophilus, refined to 3 A resolution. The final atomic model rationalizes over four decades of(More)
A structural and mechanistic explanation for the selection of tRNAs by the ribosome has been elusive. Here, we report crystal structures of the 30S ribosomal subunit with codon and near-cognate tRNA anticodon stem loops bound at the decoding center and compare affinities of equivalent complexes in solution. In ribosomal interactions with near-cognate tRNA,(More)
Initiation of translation is the process by which initiator tRNA and the start codon of mRNA are positioned in the ribosomal P site. In eukaryotes, one of the first steps involves the binding of two small factors, eIF1 and eIF1A, to the small (40S) ribosomal subunit. This facilitates tRNA binding, allows scanning of mRNA, and maintains fidelity of start(More)
The 30S ribosomal subunit has two primary functions in protein synthesis. It discriminates against aminoacyl transfer RNAs that do not match the codon of messenger RNA, thereby ensuring accuracy in translation of the genetic message in a process called decoding. Also, it works with the 50S subunit to move the tRNAs and associated mRNA by precisely one(More)
Protein synthesis is catalyzed in the peptidyl transferase center (PTC), located in the large (50S) subunit of the ribosome. No high-resolution structure of the intact ribosome has contained a complete active site including both A- and P-site tRNAs. In addition, although past structures of the 50S subunit have found no ordered proteins at the PTC,(More)
The sequential addition of amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain is carried out by the ribosome in a complicated multistep process called the elongation cycle. It involves accurate selection of each aminoacyl tRNA as dictated by the mRNA codon, catalysis of peptide bond formation, and movement of the tRNAs and mRNA through the ribosome. The process(More)
The ribosome selects a correct transfer RNA (tRNA) for each amino acid added to the polypeptide chain, as directed by messenger RNA. Aminoacyl-tRNA is delivered to the ribosome by elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), which hydrolyzes guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and releases tRNA in response to codon recognition. The signaling pathway that leads to GTP hydrolysis(More)
Elongation factor G (EF-G) is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that plays a crucial role in the translocation of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation by the ribosome. We report a crystal structure refined to 3.6 angstrom resolution of the ribosome trapped with EF-G in the posttranslocational state using the antibiotic fusidic(More)