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The crystal structure of the bacterial 70S ribosome refined to 2.8 angstrom resolution reveals atomic details of its interactions with messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). A metal ion stabilizes a kink in the mRNA that demarcates the boundary between A and P sites, which is potentially important to prevent slippage of mRNA. Metal ions also(More)
Protein synthesis is catalyzed in the peptidyl transferase center (PTC), located in the large (50S) subunit of the ribosome. No high-resolution structure of the intact ribosome has contained a complete active site including both A- and P-site tRNAs. In addition, although past structures of the 50S subunit have found no ordered proteins at the PTC,(More)
A structural and mechanistic explanation for the selection of tRNAs by the ribosome has been elusive. Here, we report crystal structures of the 30S ribosomal subunit with codon and near-cognate tRNA anticodon stem loops bound at the decoding center and compare affinities of equivalent complexes in solution. In ribosomal interactions with near-cognate tRNA,(More)
Initiation of translation is the process by which initiator tRNA and the start codon of mRNA are positioned in the ribosomal P site. In eukaryotes, one of the first steps involves the binding of two small factors, eIF1 and eIF1A, to the small (40S) ribosomal subunit. This facilitates tRNA binding, allows scanning of mRNA, and maintains fidelity of start(More)
Elongation factor G (EF-G) is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that plays a crucial role in the translocation of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation by the ribosome. We report a crystal structure refined to 3.6 angstrom resolution of the ribosome trapped with EF-G in the posttranslocational state using the antibiotic fusidic(More)
The termination of protein synthesis occurs through the specific recognition of a stop codon in the A site of the ribosome by a release factor (RF), which then catalyzes the hydrolysis of the nascent protein chain from the P-site transfer RNA. Here we present, at a resolution of 3.5 angstroms, the crystal structure of RF2 in complex with its cognate UGA(More)
We have used the recently determined atomic structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit to determine the structures of its complexes with the antibiotics tetracycline, pactamycin, and hygromycin B. The antibiotics bind to discrete sites on the 30S subunit in a manner consistent with much but not all biochemical data. For each of these antibiotics, interactions(More)
Mitochondria have specialized ribosomes that have diverged from their bacterial and cytoplasmic counterparts. We have solved the structure of the yeast mitoribosomal large subunit using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The resolution of 3.2 angstroms enabled a nearly complete atomic model to be built de novo and refined, including 39 proteins, 13(More)
A key step of translation by the ribosome is translocation, which involves the movement of messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) with respect to the ribosome. This allows a new round of protein chain elongation by placing the next mRNA codon in the A site of the 30S subunit. Translocation proceeds through an intermediate state in which the acceptor(More)
In bacteria, ribosomes stalled at the end of truncated messages are rescued by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), a bifunctional molecule that acts as both a transfer RNA (tRNA) and a messenger RNA (mRNA), and SmpB, a small protein that works in concert with tmRNA. Here, we present the crystal structure of a tmRNA fragment, SmpB and elongation factor Tu bound(More)