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The observation of vanishing electrical resistance in condensed matter has led to the discovery of new phenomena such as, for example, superconductivity, where a zero-resistance state can be detected in a metal below a transition temperature T(c) (ref. 1). More recently, quantum Hall effects were discovered from investigations of zero-resistance states at(More)
We present a method which can be used for the mass-fabrication of nanowire photonic and electronic devices based on spin-on glass technology and on the photolithographic definition of independent electrical contacts to the top and the bottom of a nanowire. This method allows for the fabrication of nanowire devices in a reliable, fast, and low cost way, and(More)
Colloidally synthesized inorganic semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been used as the active layer of optoelectronic devices due to their narrow spectral emission, [ 1 , 2 ] high luminescence effi ciency, [ 3 ] and ease of solution deposition across large areas. [ 4 ] To date, many QD light-emitting device (LED) geometries have been realized, including(More)
Catalytic growth of GaN nanowires by hydride vapour phase epitaxy is demonstrated. Nickel-gold was used as a catalyst. Nanowire growth was limited to areas patterned with catalyst. Characterization of the nanowires with transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and low temperature photoluminescence shows that the nanowires are stoichiometric(More)
We present a systematic study of the current-voltage characteristics and electroluminescence of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire on silicon (Si) substrate heterostructures where both semiconductors are n-type. A novel feature of this device is that by reversing the polarity of the applied voltage the luminescence can be selectively obtained from either the(More)
Optical properties and valence band density of states near the Fermi level of high-quality VO(2) thin films have been investigated by mid-infrared reflectometry and hard-UV (hν = 150 eV) photoemission spectroscopy. An exceptionally large change in reflectance from 2 to 94% is found upon the thermally driven metal-insulator transition (MIT). The infrared(More)
We present a general approach to growing ZnO nanowires on arbitrary, high melting point (above 970 degrees C) substrates using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. Our approach utilizes the melting point reduction of sufficiently small (5 nm diameter) Au particles to provide a liquid catalyst without substrate interaction. Using this(More)
This paper describes a strategy for the fabrication of functional electronic components (transistors, capacitors, resistors, conductors, and logic gates but not, at present, inductors) that combines a single layer of lithography with angle-dependent physical vapor deposition; this approach is named topographically encoded microlithography (abbreviated as(More)
A three-terminal spectroscopy that probes both subsurface energy barriers and interband optical transitions in a semiconductor heterostructure is demonstrated. A metal-base transistor with a unipolar p-type semiconductor collector embedding InAs/ GaAs quantum dots ͑QDs͒ is studied. Using minority-or majority-carrier injection, ballistic electron emission(More)
Several developing countries seek to build knowledge-based economies by attempting to expand scientific research capabilities. Characterizing the state and direction of progress in this arena is challenging but important. Here, we employ three metrics: a classical metric of productivity (publications per person), an adapted metric which we denote as(More)