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Amyloid plaques appear early during Alzheimer's disease (AD), and their development is intimately linked to activated astrocytes and microglia. Astrocytes are capable of accumulating substantial amounts of neuron-derived, amyloid beta(1-42) (Abeta42)-positive material and other neuron-specific proteins as a consequence of their debris-clearing role in(More)
In proteins of the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family, changes in structure as well as function are brought about by the binding of calcium. In this article, we demonstrate that these structural changes, solely due to calcium binding, can be assessed through electrophoresis in native gels. The results demonstrate that the NCS proteins undergo(More)
Human salivary alpha-amylase (HSAmy) has three distinct functions relevant to oral health: (1) hydrolysis of starch, (2) binding to hydroxyapatite (HA), and (3) binding to bacteria (e.g., viridans streptococci). Although the active site of HSAmy for starch hydrolysis is well-characterized, the regions responsible for bacterial binding are yet to be defined.(More)
Previous studies have reported immunoglobulin-positive neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, an observation indicative of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Recently, we demonstrated the nearly ubiquitous presence of brain-reactive autoantibodies in human sera. The significance of these observations to AD pathology is unknown. Here, we show that(More)
Among the top ten causes of death in the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the only one that cannot be cured, prevented, or even slowed down at present. Significant efforts have been exerted in generating model systems to delineate the mechanism as well as establishing platforms for drug screening. In this study, a promising candidate model(More)
Gait dysfunctions are commonly encountered in the primary care setting. Compensated Trendelenburg gait is a gait dysfunction that was originally described in patients with weakness of ipsilateral hip abduction. This condition is thought to result from neuronal injury or myopathy. No treatment modalities currently exist for compensated Trendelenburg gait.(More)
The features of a graphics editor for MIMOLA schematics (GEMS) and its use in the MIMOLA design process are discussed. The MIMOLA Software System (MSS) is a collection of tools for performing digital design synthesis. A key element in the MIMOLA design methodology is the role the designer plays in guiding the synthesis process. The graphics editor(More)
S100B is a calcium-sensor protein that impacts multiple signal transduction pathways. It is widely considered to be an important biomarker for several neuronal diseases as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. In this report, we demonstrate a BBB deficiency in mice that lack S100B through detection of leaked Immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the brain(More)
In this article we present data on the concentration of calcium as determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) measurements. Calcium was estimated in the reagents used for native gel electrophoresis of Neuronal Calcium Sensor (NCS) proteins. NCS proteins exhibit calcium-dependent mobility shift in native gels. The sensitivity of this shift to calcium(More)