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Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) coordinates the up-regulation of cytoprotective genes via the antioxidant response element (ARE). In the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) current evidence supports the role of oxidative stress. Considering the protective role of Nrf2 against oxidative injury, we studied Nrf2 and Nrf2-ARE target(More)
We assessed baseline and KCl-stimulated glutamate release by using microdialysis in freely moving young adult (7 months) and middle-aged (17 months) transgenic mice carrying mutated human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin genes (APdE9 mice) and their wild-type littermates. In addition, we assessed the age-related development of amyloid pathology and(More)
This work demonstrates how increased activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) paradoxically boosts production of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria. Even though SOD1 is a cytosolic enzyme, a fraction of it is found in the IMS, where it is thought to provide protection against oxidative damage. We(More)
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an oxidoreductase assisting oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of all types of cells, including neurons and glia. In neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), up-regulation of PDI is an important part of unfolded protein response (UPR) that is thought to represent an(More)
Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a clinically tolerated inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent, which provides protection in brain ischemia models. In neonatal hypoxia-ischemia model, PDTC activates Akt and reduces activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta). Because chronic inflammation,(More)
Aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] is an anti-inflammatory drug that protects against cellular injury by inhibiting cyclooxygenases (COX), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/42 MAPK), or by preventing translocation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We studied the effect of ASA pre-treatment on(More)
Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) and an antioxidant, has beneficial effects in animal models of various diseases, including arthritis, brain ischemia, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Because inflammation and oxidative damage are also hallmarks of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is preventive against stroke and protects against focal brain ischemia in rats. We studied the mechanisms of the manner in which ASA provides neuroprotection against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. METHODS Spinal cord cultures exposed to 20 hours of hypoxia followed by reoxygenation were treated with a(More)
Endogenous defense against oxidative stress is controlled by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The normal compensatory mechanisms to combat oxidative stress appear to be insufficient to protect against the prolonged exposure to reactive oxygen species during disease. Counterbalancing the effects of oxidative stress by up-regulation of Nrf2(More)
Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mechanisms of mutant SOD1 toxicity are unknown, but increased SOD1 activity can boost production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS). Using non-reducing SDS-PAGE we found that in G93A-SOD1 rats the mutant SOD1 was prominently(More)