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In Parkinson's disease, brain dopamine neurons degenerate most prominently in the substantia nigra. Neurotrophic factors promote survival, differentiation and maintenance of neurons in developing and adult vertebrate nervous system. The most potent neurotrophic factor for dopamine neurons described so far is the glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a neuronal survival factor, binds its co-receptor GDNF family receptor alpha1 (GFR alpha 1) in a 2:2 ratio and signals through the receptor tyrosine kinase RET. We have solved the GDNF(2).GFR alpha 1(2) complex structure at 2.35 A resolution in the presence of a heparin mimic, sucrose octasulfate. The(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) binds to the GDNF family co-receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1) and activates RET receptor tyrosine kinase. GFRalpha1 has a putative domain structure of three homologous cysteine-rich domains, where domains 2 and 3 make up a central domain responsible for GDNF binding. We report here the 1.8 A crystal structure of(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the ligand for two unrelated cellular receptors, TrkA and p75(NTR), and acts as a mediator in the development and maintenance of the mammalian nervous system. Signaling through TrkA kinase domains promotes neuronal survival, whereas activation of the p75(NTR) "death domains" induces apoptosis under correct physiological(More)
BACKGROUND Pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) catalyses a key step in Escherichia coli anaerobic glycolysis by converting pyruvate and CoA to formate and acetylCoA. The PFL mechanism involves an unusual radical cleavage of pyruvate, involving an essential C alpha radical of Gly734 and two cysteine residues, Cys418 and Cys419, which may form thiyl radicals(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B), discovered over 15 years ago, has long been seen as one of the more ambiguous members of the VEGF family. VEGF-B is produced as two isoforms: one that binds strongly to heparan sulfate in the pericellular matrix and a soluble form that can acquire binding via proteolytic processing. Both forms of VEGF-B bind to(More)
The ligninolytic enzyme system of Phanerochaete chrysosporium decolorizes several recalcitrant dyes. Three isolated lignin peroxidase isoenzymes (LiP 4.65, LiP 4.15, and LiP 3.85) were compared as decolorizers with the crude enzyme system from the culture medium. LiP 4.65 (H2), LiP 4.15 (H7), and LiP 3.85 (H8) were purified by chromatofocusing, and their(More)
We have solved the structures of mammalian mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) and conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF). CDNF protects and repairs midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vivo; MANF supports their survival in culture and is also cytoprotective against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Neither protein structure(More)
In glaucoma, aqueous outflow into the Schlemm's canal (SC) is obstructed. Despite striking structural and functional similarities with the lymphatic vascular system, it is unknown whether the SC is a blood or lymphatic vessel. Here, we demonstrated the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers by the SC in murine and zebrafish models as well as in(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) regulate blood and lymph vessel formation through activation of three receptor tyrosine kinases, VEGFR-1, -2, and -3. The extracellular domain of VEGF receptors consists of seven immunoglobulin homology domains, which, upon ligand binding, promote receptor dimerization. Dimerization initiates transmembrane(More)