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Stimulants are the first–line medication in the psychopharmacological treatment of attention–deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, 10 to 30% of all children and adults with ADHD either do not respond to or do not tolerate treatment with stimulants. To describe alternative treatment approaches with various non–stimulant agents, especially(More)
BACKGROUND Despite an increasing number of studies, findings of structural brain alterations in patients with Tourette syndrome are still inconsistent. Several confounders (comorbid conditions, medication, gender, age, IQ) might explain these discrepancies. In the present study, these confounders were excluded to identify differences in basal ganglia and(More)
To develop a European guideline on pharmacologic treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS) the available literature was thoroughly screened and extensively discussed by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette syndrome (ESSTS). Although there are many more studies on pharmacotherapy of TS than on behavioral treatment options, only a(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the German self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a clinical setting. We also investigated whether this additional information gathered directly from older children and adolescents improves the prediction of clinical status when external ratings from their parents and/or teachers are already(More)
Coexistence of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has important clinical and scientific implications. Existing data on the co-occurrence of tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome (TS), and ADHD are largely derived from small-scale studies in selected samples and therefore heterogeneous. The Nordbaden project captures the complete outpatient(More)
The increase in prevalence and burden of atopic diseases, i.e. eczema, rhinitis, and asthma over the past decades was paralleled by a worldwide increase in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. We systematically reviewed epidemiologic studies investigating the relationship between atopic diseases and ADHD. Electronic literature search(More)
Tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) resemble fragments of normal motor behaviour but appear in an intrusive, repetitive and context-inappropriate manner. Although tics can be voluntarily inhibited on demand, the neural correlates of this process remain unclear. 14 GTS adults without relevant comorbidities participated in this study. First, tic(More)
The causes and pathophysiological mechanisms of the common comorbidity of tic disorders and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (TD + ADHD; about 50% of TD, about 20% of ADHD) still remain unclear. Studies with a 2 × 2 design comparing groups of children with TD, ADHD, TD + ADHD and healthy controls are in need and may disentangle the influences of TD(More)
Epidemiological data indicate that atopic eczema (AE) in infancy significantly increases the risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in later life. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of this comorbidity are unknown. We propose that the release of inflammatory cytokines caused by the allergic inflammation and/or elevated levels of(More)
Around the world, cultural blending and conflict pose challenges for assessment and understanding of psychopathology. Economical, evidence-based, culturally robust assessment is needed for research, for answering public health questions, and for evaluating immigrant, refugee, and minority children. This article applies multicultural perspectives to(More)