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TGF-beta blockade significantly slows tumor growth through many mechanisms, including activation of CD8(+) T cells and macrophages. Here, we show that TGF-beta blockade also increases neutrophil-attracting chemokines, resulting in an influx of CD11b(+)/Ly6G(+) tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) that are hypersegmented, more cytotoxic to tumor cells, and(More)
PURPOSE Myeloid suppressor (Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+)) cells accumulate in the spleens of tumor-bearing mice where they contribute to immunosuppression by inhibiting the function of CD8(+) T cells and by promoting tumor angiogenesis. Elimination of these myeloid suppressor cells may thus significantly improve antitumor responses and enhance effects of cancer(More)
Altering the immunosuppressive microenvironment that exists within a tumor will likely be necessary for cancer vaccines to trigger an effective antitumor response. Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (such as CCL2) are produced by many tumors and have both direct and indirect immunoinhibitory effects. We hypothesized that CCL2 blockade would reduce(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are immature myeloid cells with immunosuppressive activity. They accumulate in tumor-bearing mice and humans with different types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to examine the biology of MDSC in murine HCC models and to identify a model, which mimics(More)
The role of myeloid cells in supporting cancer growth is well established. Most work has focused on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) that accumulate in tumor-bearing animals, but tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN) are also known to be capable of augmenting tumor growth. However, little is known about their evolution, phenotype, and relationship to(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) coexists with noradrenaline in postganglionic sympathetic neurons. In order to test the hypothesis that NPY may be released along with catecholamines by activation of the sympathoadrenal system we measured plasma NPY-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) concentrations during cold pressor test, head up tilt and bicycle exercise in healthy(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells have a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance. Mice and humans born lacking T(reg) cells develop severe autoimmune disease, and depletion of T(reg) cells in lymphopenic mice induces autoimmunity. Interleukin (IL)-2 signaling is required for thymic development, peripheral expansion and suppressive activity of(More)
Phosphate activated glutaminase (PAG), an enzyme of glutamate synthesis, was localized by immunohistochemistry in all PNMT-immunoreactive and all serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the rostral ventral medulla of the rat. Between 71 and 83% of bulbospinal neurons localised in the rostral ventral medulla projecting to the intermediolateral cell column in the(More)
There is compelling evidence for the participation of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the neural regulation of blood pressure in the normotensive rat. This is most clearly evident in the neural pathways which form the baroreceptor reflex arc. Excitatory amino acids are contained in baroreceptor afferents, neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius(More)