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Organogenesis in Drosophila embryos begins at 4-5 hours of development as the expression of organ-specific genes is initiated. The salivary primordium, which occupies the ventral epidermis of parasegment 2, is among the earliest to be defined. It is soon divided into two distinct regions: the more dorsal pregland cells and the more ventral preduct cells. We(More)
Common failures in predicting crystal structures of ligand-protein complexes are investigated for three ligand-protein systems by a combined thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the binding energy landscapes. Misdocked predictions in ligand-protein docking are classified as 'soft' and 'hard' failures. While a soft failure arises when the search algorithm(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of 6 months of intensive endurance exercise training on resting tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) activity, t-PA antigen, and fibrinogen were studied in 10 young (24-30 years) and in 13 old male subjects (60-82 years). METHODS AND RESULTS After training, maximum oxygen(More)
The thermodynamics of ligand-protein molecular recognition is investigated by the energy landscape approach for two systems: methotrexate(MTX)--dihydrofolate reductase(DHFR) and biotin-streptavidin. The temperature-dependent binding free energy profile is determined using the weighted histogram analysis method. Two different force fields are employed in(More)
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