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INTRODUCTION We evaluated the relative position of the greater palatine foramen (GPF) for precise injection of local anaesthetics, for optimal pain control in maxillofacial and dental surgeries. METHODS The study was conducted in 132 adult dried unsexed skulls of the west coast region of Southern India. All the skulls studied were normal with fully(More)
During routine osteology demonstration of the posterior cranial fossa we noticed a transverse bony canal in the middle third of the clivus of an adult male skull. The canal was situated 1.8 cm in front the anterior border of the foramen magnum. The length of the canal was 0.6 cm long. The possible embryological basis and clinical significance of the(More)
Incomplete or complete ossification of the pterygospinous ligament is uncommon. Entrapment of mandibular nerve and its branches was reported due to this anatomical variation, when found. The aim of the present study is to investigate the incidence of the pterygospinous bony bridges in Indian dry skulls. A total of 416 adult dry skulls of Indian origin were(More)
The body of the vertebra can be affected in the majority of the conditions involving the lumbar spine. Multiple references, both books and periodicals, have been reviewed, and the anatomical factors responsible for the vertebral body integrity in the lumbar spine have been included under the following important areas, namely, morphology, development,(More)
INTRODUCTION Methotrexate, a folate antagonist, is a mainstay treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is also widely used in a low dose formulation to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In rats, methotrexate is known to induce micronuclei formation, leading to genetic damage, while vitamin A is known to protect against such(More)
The peroneus quartus is an accessory peroneal muscle seen in man. The term 'peroneus quartus' is often used to refer one or several of the accessory peroneal muscles. In this case, we report an unusual type of peroneus quartus which was originating from the muscular portion of the peroneus brevis and inserting onto the peroneus longus tendon. The clinical(More)
Anatomical variations of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii have been described by various authors, but the occurrence of four-headed biceps brachii and triceps brachii in an ipsilateral arm is rare and has not been reported before in the literature. During routine cadaveric dissection in the department of anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore,(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the morphology and topography of nutrient foramina and to determine the foraminal index of the upper limb long bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study comprised 243 upper limb long bones, which included humeri, radii, and ulnae. The nutrient foramina were identified macroscopically in all the bones and an elastic rubber band was applied(More)
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The objectives were to study the morphology of the lingulae in adult human dried mandibles of South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out on 67 (37 males and 30 females) dry mandibles and the morphological variants of the shapes of the lingulae were macroscopically noted and classified. Totally, 134(More)
The identification of mastoidal emissary veins is of importance in the neurosurgical practice to diagnose abnormal and normal structures. In the present study, the objectives were to estimate the prevalence rate of mastoidal emissary foramina in the temporal bones of the adult skull and to study their number and morphology. The present study included 48(More)