Vasso Apostolopoulos

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The use of particulate carriers holds great promise for the development of effective and affordable recombinant vaccines. Rational development requires a detailed understanding of particle up-take and processing mechanisms to target cellular pathways capable of stimulating the required immune responses safely. These mechanisms are in turn based on how the(More)
The induction of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is desirable for immunization against many diseases, and recombinant-synthetic peptide antigens are now favored agents to use. However, a major problem is how to induce CTLs, which requires a T1-type response to such synthetic antigens. We report that T1-type (generating high CTL, low antibody) or T2-type(More)
Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a large complex glycoprotein that is highly expressed in breast cancer, and as such could be a target for immunotherapy. In mice, human MUC1 is highly immunogenic, particularly when conjugated to mannan, where a high frequency of CD8(+) MHC-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes is induced, accompanied by tumor protection. On this basis, a(More)
MUC1 is highly expressed in adenocarcinomas and is a possible target for immunotherapy. In mice, oxidized mannan linked to MUC1 (M-FP), given in vivo, induces potent MHC-restricted CTL and tumor protection. Because of the resistance of cancer patients to immunization, ex vivo immunization of macrophage/dendritic cells was examined using oxidized mannan MUC1(More)
Recent years have seen a surge in interest in cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) as an efficient means for delivering therapeutic targets into cellular compartments. The cell membrane is impermeable to hydrophilic substances yet linking to CPP can facilitate delivery into cells. Thus the unique translocatory property of CPP ensures they remain an attractive(More)
Susceptibility to murine and human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus correlates strongly with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II I-A or HLA-DQ alleles that lack an aspartic acid at position beta57. I-Ag7 lacks this aspartate and is the only class II allele expressed by the nonobese diabetic mouse. The crystal structure of I-Ag7 was determined(More)
A longstanding question in T cell receptor signaling is how structurally similar ligands, with similar affinities, can have substantially different biological activity. The crystal structure of the 2C TCR complex of H-2Kb with superagonist peptide SIYR at 2.8 A elucidates a structural basis for TCR discrimination of altered peptide ligands. The difference(More)
The tetraspanin membrane protein CD151 is a broadly expressed molecule noted for its strong molecular associations with integrins, especially alpha3beta1, alpha6beta1, alpha7beta1, and alpha6beta4. In vitro functional studies have pointed to a role for CD151 in cell-cell adhesion, cell migration, platelet aggregation, and angiogenesis. It has also been(More)
The immunotherapy of cancer requires the definition of a suitable target for and the induction of a CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocyte reaction. In breast cancer, particularly mucins (MUC1) of the variable number of tandem repeat sequence may be a suitable target, but there has been a problem in inducing a cytotoxic response. MUC1 peptides, conjugated to carriers(More)
Successful tumor immunotherapy with peptides requires the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rather than antibodies. Mice immunized with mannan conjugated to MUC1, a peptide found in large amounts in breast cancer, develop CTL responses. In contrast, immunized patients produce high antibodies with poor CTL responses to MUC1. Here, we provide(More)