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Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MPs) are important for immunological homeostasis in the colon. We found that F4/80(hi)CX3CR1(hi) (CD11b(+)CD103(-)) cells account for 80% of mouse colonic lamina propria MHC-II(hi) cells. Both CD11c(+) and CD11c(-) cells within this population were identified as MPs based on multiple criteria, including an MP(More)
Kupffer cells, the resident liver macrophages have long been considered as mostly scavenger cells responsible for removing particulate material from the portal circulation. However, evidence derived mostly from animal models, indicates that Kupffer cells may be implicated in the pathogenesis of various liver diseases including viral hepatitis,(More)
In recent years, nitric oxide (NO), a gas previously considered to be a potentially toxic chemical, has been established as a diffusible universal messenger that mediates cell-cell communication throughout the body. Constitutive and inducible NO production regulate numerous essential functions of the gastrointestinal mucosa, such as maintenance of adequate(More)
A balance between endothelins (ET) and nitric oxide (NO) might interfere with liver haemodynamics and disease progression in various liver diseases. Increased levels of endothelin 1 (ET-1) and nitrites and nitrates (NOx, the end products of NO metabolism) have been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the balance has not been studied. The purpose(More)
Human colonic epithelial cells express T helper type 1 (Th1)-associated chemoattractants, yet little is known about the production of Th2-associated chemoattractants. CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL24/eotaxin-2 and CCL26/eotaxin-3 are known to attract CCR3-expressing, Th2-polarized lymphocytes. We studied constitutive and inflammation-induced expression and production(More)
BACKGROUND Apoptosis may be an important mechanism of hepatocyte death in chronic viral liver disease. METHODS We studied apoptosis in liver biopsies from 30 patients with chronic viral hepatitis and 8 patients with viral cirrhosis by the TUNEL method. 12 cases of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and 12 cases of primary biliary cirrhosis were used as(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein (MCP)-1 co-regulation has been found in endotoxin-activated macrophages. Kupffer cells (KC) are a main source of soluble-mediators production in liver abnormalities. We investigated in vitro similar co-regulation of NO and MCP-1 production in rat activated KC. Isolated rat KC were cultured in the(More)
During the last decade, biological therapies have an increasing share in the modern therapeutics of various diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Animal models of IBD have often been used to identify the targets of biological therapies, to test their relevance to disease pathogenesis, to assess their therapeutic efficacy in vivo, and to(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) production is increased in the human colonic mucosa in intestinal inflammation. We examined the effect of corticosteroids and the role of mononuclear cells in this production. Colonic biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis and normal controls were cultured with either budesonide or prednisolone in the presence of proinflammatory(More)
De novo differentiation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (induced (i) Tregs) occurs preferentially in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). We addressed the contribution of background genetic factors in affecting the balance of iTreg, T helper type 1 (Th1), and Th17 cell differentiation in GALT in vivo following the transfer of naive(More)