Vassilis Koronakis

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Diverse molecules, from small antibacterial drugs to large protein toxins, are exported directly across both cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. This export is brought about by the reversible interaction of substrate-specific inner-membrane proteins with an outer-membrane protein of the TolC family, thus bypassing the intervening periplasm. Here we(More)
Bacteria like Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa expel drugs via tripartite multidrug efflux pumps spanning both inner and outer membranes and the intervening periplasm. In these pumps a periplasmic adaptor protein connects a substrate-binding inner membrane transporter to an outer membrane-anchored TolC-type exit duct. High-resolution structures(More)
The toxin HlyA is exported from Escherichia coli, without a periplasmic intermediate, by a type I system comprising an energized inner-membrane (IM) translocase of two proteins, HlyD and the traffic ATPase HlyB, and the outer-membrane (OM) porin-like TolC. These and the toxin substrate were expressed separately to reconstitute export and, via affinity tags(More)
Salmonella causes severe gastroenteritis in humans, entering non-phagocytic cells to initiate intracellular replication. Bacterial engulfment occurs by macropinocytosis, which is dependent upon nucleation of host cell actin polymerization and condensation ('bundling') of actin filaments into cables. This is stimulated by contact-induced delivery of an array(More)
Salmonella pathogenesis relies upon the delivery of over thirty specialised effector proteins into the host cell via two distinct type III secretion systems. These effectors act in concert to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, signal transduction pathways, membrane trafficking and pro-inflammatory responses. This allows Salmonella to invade non-phagocytic(More)
Multidrug resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is conferred by three-component membrane pumps that expel diverse antibiotics from the cell. These efflux pumps consist of an inner membrane transporter such as the AcrB proton antiporter, an outer membrane exit duct of the TolC family, and a periplasmic protein known as the adaptor. We present the x-ray(More)
Pathogen-induced remodelling of the host cell actin cytoskeleton drives internalization of invasive Salmonella by non-phagocytic intestinal epithelial cells. Two Salmonella actin-binding proteins are involved in internalization: SipC is essential for the process, while SipA enhances its efficiency. Using purified SipC and SipA proteins in in vitro assays of(More)
The bacterial TolC protein plays a common role in the expulsion of diverse molecules, which include protein toxins and antibacterial drugs, from the cell. TolC is a trimeric 12-stranded alpha/beta barrel, comprising an alpha-helical trans-periplasmic tunnel embedded in the outer membrane by a contiguous beta-barrel channel. This structure establishes a 140(More)
The Escherichia coli RfaH protein is required for the expression of operons directing synthesis and export of the toxin haemolysin, the lipopolysaccharide core, and the F-factor sex pilus. Mutation of rfaH increases transcriptional polarity along all three operons. By demonstrating strong RfaH-dependent suppression of transcription polarity in vitro, we(More)
Salmonellae employ two type III secretion systems (T3SSs), SPI1 and SPI2, to deliver virulence effectors into mammalian cells. SPI1 effectors, including actin-binding SipA, trigger initial bacterial uptake, whereas SPI2 effectors promote subsequent replication within customized Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). SCVs sequester actin filaments and(More)