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Diverse molecules, from small antibacterial drugs to large protein toxins, are exported directly across both cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. This export is brought about by the reversible interaction of substrate-specific inner-membrane proteins with an outer-membrane protein of the TolC family, thus bypassing the intervening periplasm. Here we(More)
Salmonellae employ two type III secretion systems (T3SSs), SPI1 and SPI2, to deliver virulence effectors into mammalian cells. SPI1 effectors, including actin-binding SipA, trigger initial bacterial uptake, whereas SPI2 effectors promote subsequent replication within customized Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). SCVs sequester actin filaments and(More)
Periplasmic adaptor proteins are key components of bacterial tripartite efflux pumps. The 2.85 Å resolution structure of an MFS (major facilitator superfamily) pump adaptor, Aquifex aeolicus EmrA, shows linearly arranged α-helical coiled-coil, lipoyl, and β-barrel domains, but lacks the fourth membrane-proximal domain shown in other pumps to interact with(More)
Salmonella pathogenesis relies upon the delivery of over thirty specialised effector proteins into the host cell via two distinct type III secretion systems. These effectors act in concert to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, signal transduction pathways, membrane trafficking and pro-inflammatory responses. This allows Salmonella to invade non-phagocytic(More)
Hemolysin of Escherichia coli is activated by fatty acylation of the protoxin, directed by the putative acyl transferase HlyC and by acyl carrier protein (ACP). Mass spectrometry and Edman degradation of proteolytic products from mature toxin activated in vitro with tritium-labeled acylACP revealed two fatty-acylated internal lysine residues, lysine 564 and(More)
Haemolysin secreted by pathogenic Escherichia coli binds to mammalian cell membranes, disrupting cellular activities and lysing cells by pore-formation. It is synthesized as nontoxic prohaemolysin (proHlyA), which is activated intracellularly by a mechanism dependent on the cosynthesized HlyC. Haemolysin is one of a family of membrane-targeted toxins,(More)
Periplasmic adaptor proteins are essential components of bacterial tripartite multidrug efflux pumps. Here we report the 2.35 Å resolution crystal structure of the BesA adaptor from the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi solved using selenomethionine derivatized protein. BesA shows the archetypal linear, flexible, multi-domain architecture evident among(More)
The pore-forming hemolysin (HlyA) of Escherichia coli represents a unique class of bacterial toxins that require a posttranslational modification for activity. The inactive protoxin pro-HlyA is activated intracellularly by amide linkage of fatty acids to two internal lysine residues 126 amino acids apart, directed by the cosynthesized HlyC protein with acyl(More)
Drug resistance in gram-negative bacteria may be conferred via efflux through a tripartite complex of an inner membrane pump, an outer membrane pore, and a periplasmic adaptor protein. These are AcrB, TolC, and AcrA, respectively, in Escherichia coli. In Pseudomonas aerugonisa, their homologs are MexB, OprM, and MexA. Defining the interdomain dynamics of(More)
Virulence effectors delivered into intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella trigger actin remodeling to direct pathogen internalization and intracellular replication in Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). One such effector, SptP, functions early during pathogen entry to deactivate Rho GTPases and reverse pathogen-induced cytoskeletal changes following(More)