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Brain plasticity refers to changes in the organization of the brain as a result of different environmental stimuli. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic variation of brain plasticity, by comparing intrapair differences between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. Plasticity was examined by a paired associative stimulation (PAS) in 32(More)
Identical male twins (four sets aged 10 yr, four sets aged 13 yr, and four sets aged 16 yr) were divided so that one twin underwent strenuos endurance training for 10 wk, while his brother served as a control without training. Intrapair comparisons of the training-period changes in aerobic, anaerobic, and cardiorespiratory responses to maximum work on a(More)
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physical exertion (treadmill) on mental performance (matching a comparison design). Nine pairs of monozygotic twins (boys aged 11 to 14 yr.) were randomly divided into two groups, one trained and one untrained, while eight boys of the same age served as a control group. The trained group underwent a(More)
Numerous reports of genetic associations with performance- and injury-related phenotypes have been published over the past three decades; these studies have employed primarily the candidate gene approach to identify genes that associate with elite performance or with variation in performance-and/or injury-related traits. Although generally with small effect(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to assess the relative power of genetic and environmental contribution to the variation observed in neuromuscular coordination. METHODS Using the twin model and comparing intrapair differences between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, we derived heritability estimates (h2). Forty healthy male twins, 10 MZ and 10(More)
A pair of monozygous twins, a trained athlete and his identical untrained counterpart, were tested over a period of 1 1/2 years. Monozygosity was established on the basis of morphological traits and serological criteria. Repeated measurements obtained during basal conditions, submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer disclosed that: a) the basal(More)
The energy metabolism of subjects while they swam using the dolphin-butterfly stroke, was analyzed. It was found that: 1. The oxygen consumption while swimming with the whole stroke, the arm-stroke or the leg-kick, increases exponentially with an arithmetical increase in swimming velocity. 2. At competitive speeds swimming with only the leg-kick requires(More)