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The mechanisms by which eukaryotic cells sense DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in order to initiate checkpoint responses are poorly understood. 53BP1 is a conserved checkpoint protein with properties of a DNA DSB sensor. Here, we solved the structure of the domain of 53BP1 that recruits it to sites of DSBs. This domain consists of two tandem tudor folds(More)
Of all types of DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) pose the greatest challenge to cells. One might have, therefore, anticipated that a sizable number of DNA DSBs would be incompatible with cell proliferation. Yet recent experimental findings suggest that, in both precancerous lesions and cancers, activated oncogenes induce stalling and collapse of(More)
DNA damage checkpoint genes, such as p53, are frequently mutated in human cancer, but the selective pressure for their inactivation remains elusive. We analysed a panel of human lung hyperplasias, all of which retained wild-type p53 genes and had no signs of gross chromosomal instability, and found signs of a DNA damage response, including histone H2AX and(More)
Recent studies have indicated the existence of tumorigenesis barriers that slow or inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions to neoplasia. One such barrier involves DNA replication stress, which leads to activation of the DNA damage checkpoint and thereby to apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, whereas a second barrier is mediated by oncogene-induced(More)
Genomic instability is a characteristic of most cancers. In hereditary cancers, genomic instability results from mutations in DNA repair genes and drives cancer development, as predicted by the mutator hypothesis. In sporadic (non-hereditary) cancers the molecular basis of genomic instability remains unclear, but recent high-throughput sequencing studies(More)
Studies on the involvement of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in initiation and progression of oral neoplasia have generated conflicting results. The observed discrepancy is attributable mainly to the varying sensitivity of the applied methodologies and to epidemiologic factors of the examined patient groups. To evaluate the role of HPV in oral(More)
Numerous upstream stimulatory and inhibitory signals converge to the pRb/E2F pathway, which governs cell-cycle progression, but the information concerning alterations of E2F-1 in primary malignancies is very limited. Several in vitro studies report that E2F-1 can act either as an oncoprotein or as a tumour suppressor protein. In view of this dichotomy in(More)
The immunohistochemical expression of p53, p21, Rb, p16, cyclin D1, Ki67, cyclin A, cyclin B1, p27, bcl2, bax, and bak proteins and the apoptotic index (Al) were investigated in 20 normal thymuses (8 adults, 3 adolescents, 5 infants and 4 newborns). The expressions of Rb, Ki67, cyclin A and cyclin B1 were overlapping, being high in the cortex with a(More)
The accurate execution of DNA replication requires a strict control of the replication licensing factors hCdt1 and hCdc6. The role of these key replication molecules in carcinogenesis has not been clarified. To examine how early during cancer development deregulation of these factors occurs, we investigated their status in epithelial lesions covering(More)