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Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are nicotine delivery devices that are proposed as tobacco harm reduction products to smokers. Nicotine delivery from ECs is potentially important in their efficacy as smoking substitutes. Herein, nicotine delivery from using a new-generation EC device (variable-wattage, set at 9 W) was evaluated, comparing experienced (vapers)(More)
BACKGROUND Although millions of people are using electronic cigarettes (ECs) and research on this topic has intensified in recent years, the pattern of EC use has not been systematically studied. Additionally, no comparative measure of exposure and nicotine delivery between EC and tobacco cigarette or nicotine replacement therapy (NRTs) has been(More)
A wide range of electronic cigarette (EC) devices, from small cigarette-like (first-generation) to new-generation high-capacity batteries with electronic circuits that provide high energy to a refillable atomizer, are available for smokers to substitute smoking. Nicotine delivery to the bloodstream is important in determining the addictiveness of ECs, but(More)
BACKGROUND Electronic cigarette (EC) use has grown exponentially over the past few years. The purpose of this survey was to assess the characteristics and experiences of a large sample of EC users and examine the differences between those who partially and completely substituted smoking with EC use. METHODS A questionnaire was prepared, translated into 10(More)
BACKGROUND A major characteristic of the electronic cigarette (EC) market is the availability of a large number of different flavours. This has been criticised by the public health authorities, some of whom believe that diverse flavours will attract young users and that ECs are a gateway to smoking. At the same time, several reports in the news media(More)
BACKGROUND Electronic cigarettes have been developed and marketed in recent years as smoking substitutes. However, no studies have evaluated their effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on left ventricular (LV) function, compared to the well-documented acute adverse(More)
BACKGROUND Although the superiority of low-osmolar over high-osmolar contrast agents in prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is generally accepted, the relative nephrotoxicity of iso-osmolar over low-osmolar agents has not yet clearly defined. We examined the incidence of CI-AKI according to the type of contrast agent used in a(More)
BACKGROUND Increased QT interval dispersion (QTd) has been found in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In previous studies this has been shown to decrease with thrombolysis. HYPOTHESIS The aim of this study was to compare the effects of reperfusion by primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and by thrombolysis on QTd(More)
BACKGROUND The human KCNE1 protein forms the β-subunit of the IKs potassium channel and is important in the regulation of the atrial action potential duration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the nonsynonymous 112G>A mutation of the KCNE1 gene and postcardiac surgery atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS A(More)