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Mutations in the gene encoding Cav 1.4, CACNA1F, are associated with visual disorders including X-linked incomplete congenital stationary night blindness type 2 (CSNB2). In mice lacking Cav 1.4 channels, there are defects in the development of "ribbon" synapses formed between photoreceptors (PRs) and second-order neurons. However, many CSNB2 mutations(More)
PDE6 (phosphodiesterase-6) is the effector molecule in the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. Progress in understanding the structure and function of PDE6 has been hindered by lack of an expression system of the enzyme. Here we report ectopic expression and analysis of compartmentalization and membrane dynamics of the enhanced green fluorescent protein(More)
Light-dependent redistribution of transducin between the rod outer segments (OS) and other photoreceptor compartments including the inner segments (IS) and synaptic terminals (ST) is recognized as a critical contributing factor to light and dark adaptation. The mechanisms of light-induced transducin translocation to the IS/ST and its return to the OS during(More)
Photoreceptor rod and cone phosphodiesterases comprise the sixth family of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE6). PDE6s have uniquely evolved as effector enzymes in the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. To understand the evolution of the PDE6 family, we have examined PDE6 in lamprey, an ancient vertebrate group. A single PDE6 catalytic subunit(More)
Diffusion and light-dependent compartmentalization of transducin are essential for phototransduction and light adaptation of rod photoreceptors. Here, transgenic Xenopus laevis models were designed to probe the roles of transducin/rhodopsin interactions and lipid modifications in transducin compartmentalization, membrane mobility, and light-induced(More)
Lampreys represent the most primitive vertebrate class of jawless fish and serve as an evolutionary model of the vertebrate visual system. Transducin-alpha (G alpha(t)) subunits were investigated in lamprey Petromyzon marinus in order to understand the molecular origins of rod and cone photoreceptor G proteins. Two G alpha(t) subunits, G alpha(tL) and G(More)
Mutations in the CACNA1F gene encoding the Cav1.4 Ca (2+) channel are associated with X-linked congenital stationary night blindness type 2 (CSNB2). Despite the increasing knowledge about the functional behavior of mutated channels in heterologous systems, the pathophysiological mechanisms that result in vision impairment remain to be elucidated. This work(More)
N-terminal acylation of the alpha-subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins is believed to play a major role in regulating the cellular localization and signaling of G-proteins, but physiological evidence has been lacking. To examine the functional significance of N-acylation of a well understood G-protein alpha-subunit, transducin (G alpha(t)), we generated(More)
The Nougaret form of dominant stationary night blindness is linked to a G38D mutation in the rod transducin-alpha subunit (Talpha). In this study, we have examined the mechanism of Nougaret night blindness using transgenic mice expressing TalphaG38D. The biochemical, electrophysiological, and vision-dependent behavioral analyses of the mouse model revealed(More)
In rod photoreceptors, several phototransduction components display light-dependent translocation between cellular compartments. Notably, the G protein transducin translocates from rod outer segments to inner segments/spherules in bright light, but the functional consequences of translocation remain unclear. We generated transgenic mice where light-induced(More)