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A pilot study was conducted to determine if host genetic factors influence susceptibility and outcomes in human filariasis. Using the candidate gene approach, a well-characterized population in South India was studied using common polymorphisms in six genes (CHIT1, MPO, NRAMP, CYBA, NCF2, and MBL2). A total of 216 individuals from South India were(More)
Patent lymphatic filariasis is characterized by a profound down-regulation of immune responses with both parasite Ag-specific tolerance and bystander suppression. Although this down-regulation is confined to the Th1 arm of the immune system in response to parasite Ag, we hypothesized a more generalized suppression in response to live parasites. Indeed, when(More)
The immunological mechanisms involved in maintenance of an asymptomatic microfilaremic state (MF) in patients with lymphatic filariasis remain undefined. MF patients have impaired filarial antigen (Ag)-specific lymphocyte proliferation and decreased frequencies (Fo) of Ag-specific T cells, and yet elevated serum IgE and antifilarial IgG4. To investigate the(More)
To determine whether counterregulation by interleukin (IL)-10 plays a role in the generation or maintenance of the antigen-specific hyporesponsiveness seen in asymptomatic microfilaremic (MF) patients, parasite antigen (PAg)- and nonparasite antigen (NPAg)-driven IL-10 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied in 10 MF patients and(More)
To understand the molecular basis of parasite-specific anergy in human lymphatic filariasis caused by the nematode Wuchereria bancrofti, parasite antigen-dependent cellular proliferation and cytokine gene expression were investigated. By reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the levels of cytokine mRNA were determined in the peripheral(More)
Delineating the immune responses in lymphatic filariasis has been complicated not only by the rapidly expanding knowledge of new immunological mediators and effortors, but also by new methodologies (in particular, circulating filarial antigen detection) for defining and categorizing filarial-infected individuals. By using assays for circulating antigen in(More)
Patent lymphatic filariasis is characterized by profound Ag-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness with impaired IFN-gamma and IL-2 production. Because T cells have been shown to express a number of TLR and to respond to TLR ligands, we hypothesized that diminished T cell TLR function could partially account for the T cell hyporesponsiveness in filariasis. T(More)
To explore the mechanisms of antigen-specific immune unresponsiveness seen in microfilaremic patients with bancroftian filariasis, T and B cell precursor frequency analysis was performed using PBMC from individuals with either asymptomatic microfilaremia (MF, n = 7) or chronic lymphatic obstruction (CP, n = 20). Highly purified CD3+ cells were partially(More)
Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between the incidence of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and the incidence of allergies and autoimmunity. However, the interrelationship between LF and type-2 diabetes is not known and hence, a cross sectional study to assess the baseline prevalence and the correlates of sero-positivity of LF among(More)
The presence of circulating immune complexes (CICs) is a characteristic feature of human lymphatic filariasis. However, the role of CICs in modulating granulocyte function and complement functional activity in filarial infection is unknown. The levels of CICs in association with complement activation in clinically asymptomatic, filarial-infected patients(More)