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Patent lymphatic filariasis is characterized by a profound down-regulation of immune responses with both parasite Ag-specific tolerance and bystander suppression. Although this down-regulation is confined to the Th1 arm of the immune system in response to parasite Ag, we hypothesized a more generalized suppression in response to live parasites. Indeed, when(More)
Patent lymphatic filariasis is characterized by profound Ag-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness with impaired IFN-gamma and IL-2 production. Because T cells have been shown to express a number of TLR and to respond to TLR ligands, we hypothesized that diminished T cell TLR function could partially account for the T cell hyporesponsiveness in filariasis. T(More)
The antigen-specific immune unresponsiveness seen in bancroftian filariasis was studied by examining lymphokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or PBMC subpopulations from 10 patients with asymptomatic microfilaremia, 13 patients with elephantiasis and 6 normal North Americans. In each group of patients, the kinetics of the(More)
Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between the incidence of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and the incidence of allergies and autoimmunity. However, the interrelationship between LF and type-2 diabetes is not known and hence, a cross sectional study to assess the baseline prevalence and the correlates of sero-positivity of LF among(More)
The pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of single, oral doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole, given alone or in combination, were investigated in a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial involving 42 amicrofilaraemic subjects living in an area of India where lymphatic filariasis is endemic. The subjects (34 males and eight(More)
The immunoregulatory mechanisms involved in B cell function in patients with varying clinical manifestations of bancroftian filariasis were examined by studying the ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or PBMC subpopulations from patients with elephantiasis, asymptomatic microfilaremia (MF), and acute tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) to(More)
Lymphatic filariasis is a major health problem in many parts of the tropical world. Although the disease itself is rarely fatal, the disability caused by the swollen extremities, the acute attacks of adenolymphangitis and the consequent sufferings of those afflicted are considerable. The economic burden imposed by lymphatic filariasis is not fully(More)
The immunological mechanisms involved in maintenance of an asymptomatic microfilaremic state (MF) in patients with lymphatic filariasis remain undefined. MF patients have impaired filarial antigen (Ag)-specific lymphocyte proliferation and decreased frequencies (Fo) of Ag-specific T cells, and yet elevated serum IgE and antifilarial IgG4. To investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a cell entry cofactor for macrophage-tropic isolates of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Recently, an inactive CCR5 allele (designated here as CCR5-2) was identified that confers resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygotes and slows the rate of progression to AIDS in heterozygotes. The reports conflict on(More)
A pilot study was conducted to determine if host genetic factors influence susceptibility and outcomes in human filariasis. Using the candidate gene approach, a well-characterized population in South India was studied using common polymorphisms in six genes (CHIT1, MPO, NRAMP, CYBA, NCF2, and MBL2). A total of 216 individuals from South India were(More)