Varun Kumar

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BACKGROUND Although HIV program evaluations focusing on mortality on ART provide important evidence on treatment effectiveness, they do not asses overall HIV program performance because they exclude patients who are eligible but not started on ART for whatever reason. The objective of this study was to measure mortality that occurs both pre-ART and during(More)
BACKGROUND Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. METHODS AND FINDINGS A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for(More)
We describe the first cases of pediatric melioidosis in Cambodia. Thirty-nine cases were diagnosed at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between October 2005 and December 2008 after the introduction of microbiology capabilities. Median age was 7.8 years (range = 1.6-16.2 years), 15 cases were male (38%), and 4 cases had pre-existing conditions(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children remain poorly documented in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to assess two-and three-year survival, CD4 evolution and virological response among children on ART in a programmatic setting in Cambodia. METHODS Children treated with first-line ART for at least(More)
We previously described the first reported isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (a case series of pediatric community-associated MRSA infections) in Cambodia. We define the rate of pediatric MRSA carriage in the same population and characterize the associated bacterial genotypes by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and(More)
Rapid diagnostic tests are needed for typhoid fever (TF) diagnosis in febrile children in endemic areas. Five hundred children admitted to the hospital in Cambodia between 2009 and 2010 with documented fever (≥ 38°C) were investigated using blood cultures (BCs), Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi A real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), and a Typhoid(More)
Typhoid fever was confirmed by positive blood culture in 5 (3.7%) of 134 febrile children hospitalized in Cambodia. Typhoid was suspected in an additional 25 (18.7 %) blood culture-negative children based on: a positive immunoglobulin M lateral flow assay (IgMFA) (16); a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Salmonella typhi (2); or clinical(More)
BACKGROUND The burden of dengue continues to increase globally, with an estimated 100 million clinically apparent infections occurring each year. Although most dengue infections are asymptomatic, patients can present with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms ranging from mild febrile illness through to severe manifestations of bleeding, organ impairment,(More)
OBJECTIVE Antibiotic resistance is a prominent public and global health concern. We investigated antibiotic use in children by determining the proportion of unselected children with antibacterial activity in their urine attending a paediatric outpatient department in Siem Reap, Cambodia. METHODS Caregiver reports of medication history and presence of(More)