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Repeat tumor biopsies to study genomic changes during therapy are difficult, invasive and data are confounded by tumoral heterogeneity. The analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can provide a non-invasive approach to assess prognosis and the genetic evolution of tumors in response to therapy. Mutation-specific droplet digital PCR was used to measure(More)
Melanoma of unknown primary (MUP) is an uncommon phenomenon whereby patients present with metastatic disease without an evident primary site. To determine their likely site of origin, we combined exome sequencing from 33 MUPs to assess the total rate of somatic mutations and degree of UV mutagenesis. An independent cohort of 91 archival MUPs was also(More)
Success with molecular-based targeted drugs in the treatment of cancer has ignited extensive research efforts within the field of personalized therapeutics. However, successful application of such therapies is dependent on the presence or absence of mutations within the patient's tumor that can confer clinical efficacy or drug resistance. Building on these(More)
In metastatic melanoma, it is vital to identify and validate biomarkers of prognosis. Previous studies have systematically evaluated protein biomarkers or mRNA-based expression signatures. No such analyses have been applied to microRNA (miRNA)-based prognostic signatures. As a first step, we identified two prognostic miRNA signatures from publicly available(More)
One-third of BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma patients treated with combined BRAF and MEK inhibition progress within 6 months. Treatment options for these patients remain limited. Here we analyse 20 BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma metastases derived from 10 patients treated with the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib for resistance mechanisms and genetic(More)
B-RAF inhibitors (BRAFi) have been shown to improve rates of overall and progression-free survival in patients with stage IV metastatic melanoma positive for the BRAF V600E mutation. However, the main drawback is the development of verrucal keratosis (hyperkeratotic papules with verruca-like characteristics with benign histological findings) and cutaneous(More)
The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in melanoma is unclear. We examined global miRNA expression profiles in fresh-frozen metastatic melanomas in relation to clinical outcome and BRAF mutation, with validation in independent cohorts of tumours and sera. We integrated miRNA and mRNA information from the same samples and elucidated networks associated with outcome(More)
Targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat a variety of cancers. Their efficacy depends upon the accurate detection and targeting of a specific mutation or aberration in the tumor. All cancers, such as melanoma, are molecularly heterogeneous, with drug-resistant subclones present before the treatment or emerging as a result of targeted(More)
Human cells are prone to a range of natural environmental stresses and administered agents that damage or modify DNA, resulting in a cellular response typified by either cell death, or a cell cycle arrest, to permit repair of the genomic damage. DNA damage often elicits movement of proteins from one subcellular location to another, and the redistribution of(More)
Selective BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) are a standard of care for the treatment of BRAF(V) (600) -mutant metastatic melanoma. We analyzed a unique set of serial triplicate human metastatic melanoma tumor biopsies to identify biomarkers of BRAFi response and resistance. Morphologic features and immunohistochemical biomarkers were analyzed in 37 metastatic(More)