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Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global(More)
BACKGROUND The Influenza A pandemic H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus appeared in India in May 2009 and thereafter outbreaks with considerable morbidity and mortality have been reported from many parts of the country. Continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of the virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country in relation to global(More)
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of viral respiratory infections is crucial for patient management. Multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) is used increasingly to diagnose respiratory infections and has shown to be more sensitive than viral culture and antigen detection. Objective of the present study was to develop a one-step(More)
The indigenous transmission of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus in India made it as one of the major sub-types in circulation. Genetic characterization indicated that the viruses predominantly clustered in clade 7, the globally most widely circulating pH1N1 clade. It is imperative to continue monitoring the genetic make-up of the pH1N1 viruses to(More)
An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in poultry was reported from Nandurbar and Jalgaon districts of Maharashtra and adjoining areas of Uchhal in Gujarat and Burhanpur in Madhya Pradesh in India from January to April, 2006. In the present study, the full genome of two previously uncharacterized strains of H5N1 viruses isolated at(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES An outbreak of influenza was investigated between June 24 and July 30, 2009 in a residential school at Panchgani, Maharashtra, India. The objectives were to determine the aetiology, study the clinical features in the affected individuals and, important epidemiological and environmental factors. The nature of public health response(More)
The pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was first detected in India in May 2009 and continued to circulate in the postpandemic period. Whole-genome sequence analysis of postpandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses showed the circulation of clade 6 and clade 7 viruses. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene showed increased diversity compared with that in the pandemic phase.
BACKGROUND Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. In absence of reliable information on severity of the disease, the nations are unable to decide on the appropriate response against this disease. METHODS Based on the results of laboratory investigations, attendance in outpatient department, hospital(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza surveillance is important to identify circulating, emerging/reemerging strains and unusual epidemiological trends. With these objectives, a multisite human influenza surveillance network was initiated in India in 2004. METHODS Epidemiologic data and throat swabs for laboratory testing were collected from patients with influenza-like(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza surveillance is an important tool to identify emerging/reemerging strains, and defining seasonality. We describe the distinct patterns of circulating strains of the virus in different areas in India from 2009 to 2013. METHODS Patients in ten cities presenting with influenza like illness in out-patient departments of(More)