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Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global(More)
BACKGROUND The Influenza A pandemic H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus appeared in India in May 2009 and thereafter outbreaks with considerable morbidity and mortality have been reported from many parts of the country. Continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of the virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country in relation to global(More)
BACKGROUND Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. In absence of reliable information on severity of the disease, the nations are unable to decide on the appropriate response against this disease. METHODS Based on the results of laboratory investigations, attendance in outpatient department, hospital(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza surveillance is an important tool to identify emerging/reemerging strains, and defining seasonality. We describe the distinct patterns of circulating strains of the virus in different areas in India from 2009 to 2013. METHODS Patients in ten cities presenting with influenza like illness in out-patient departments of(More)
The pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was first detected in India in May 2009 and continued to circulate in the postpandemic period. Whole-genome sequence analysis of postpandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses showed the circulation of clade 6 and clade 7 viruses. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene showed increased diversity compared with that in the pandemic phase.
Systematic influenza virus surveillance has been carried out in India since 2004 and has revealed the cocirculation of type B lineages. The genetic diversity of influenza B viruses was observed when full-genome analysis was performed. In 2010, the cocirculation of multiple genotypes was observed.
OBJECTIVE Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. Data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of AECOPD, but data from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to determine the contribution of viruses in(More)
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