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Measuring the global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) is a valuable tool for assessing brain vitality and function. Measurement of blood oxygen saturation (HbO(2)) and flow in the major cerebral outflow and inflow vessels can provide a global estimate of CMRO(2). We demonstrate a rapid noninvasive method for quantifying CMRO(2) by simultaneously(More)
The effect of hypercapnia on cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) has been a subject of intensive investigation and debate. Most applications of hypercapnia are based on the assumption that a mild increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide has negligible effect on cerebral metabolism. In this study, we sought to further investigate(More)
A time-efficient method is described for in vivo venous blood T(1) measurement using multiphase inversion-recovery-prepared balanced steady-state free precession imaging. Computer simulations and validation experiments using a flow phantom were carried out to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method for measuring blood T(1) by taking advantage of the(More)
Quantification of blood oxygen saturation on the basis of a measurement of its magnetic susceptibility demands knowledge of the difference in volume susceptibility between fully oxygenated and fully deoxygenated blood (Δχ(do) ). However, two very different values of Δχ(do) are currently in use. In this work we measured Δχ(do) as well as the susceptibility(More)
Measuring venous oxygen saturation (HbO2) in large blood vessels can provide important information about oxygen delivery and its consumption in vital organs. Quantification of blood's T2 value via MR can be utilized to determine HbO2 noninvasively. We propose a fast method for in vivo blood T2 quantification via computing the complex difference of(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the longitudinal repeatability and accuracy of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements by using pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeled (pCASL) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in typically developing children. MATERIALS AND METHODS Institutional review board approval with HIPAA compliance and informed consent were obtained.(More)
BACKGROUND Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a trivalent inactivated split virus influenza vaccine (TIV) against culture-confirmed influenza A and/or B in adults 18 to 64 years of age during the 2005/2006 season in the Czech Republic. METHODS 6203 subjects were randomized to receive TIV (N = 4137) or placebo (N = 2066). The sample size was based on(More)
BACKGROUND Mismatch between circulating influenza B viruses (Yamagata and Victoria lineages) and vaccine strains occurs frequently. METHODS In a randomized controlled trial, immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate (QIV) versus trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)-Victoria(Vic) and TIV-Yamagata(Yam) in(More)
BACKGROUND Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have co-circulated since the 1980s, yet inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) include strains of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and only one influenza B from either the Victoria or Yamagata lineage. This means that exposure to B-lineage viruses mismatched to the TIV is frequent, reducing(More)
We present a technique for quantifying global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) in absolute physiologic units at 3-second temporal resolution and apply the technique to quantify the dynamic CMRO2 response to volitional apnea. Temporal resolution of 3 seconds was achieved via a combination of view sharing and superior sagittal sinus-based(More)