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Quantification of blood oxygen saturation on the basis of a measurement of its magnetic susceptibility demands knowledge of the difference in volume susceptibility between fully oxygenated and fully deoxygenated blood (Δχ(do) ). However, two very different values of Δχ(do) are currently in use. In this work we measured Δχ(do) as well as the susceptibility(More)
Measuring the global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) is a valuable tool for assessing brain vitality and function. Measurement of blood oxygen saturation (HbO(2)) and flow in the major cerebral outflow and inflow vessels can provide a global estimate of CMRO(2). We demonstrate a rapid noninvasive method for quantifying CMRO(2) by simultaneously(More)
The effect of hypercapnia on cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) has been a subject of intensive investigation and debate. Most applications of hypercapnia are based on the assumption that a mild increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide has negligible effect on cerebral metabolism. In this study, we sought to further investigate(More)
Measuring venous oxygen saturation (HbO2) in large blood vessels can provide important information about oxygen delivery and its consumption in vital organs. Quantification of blood's T2 value via MR can be utilized to determine HbO2 noninvasively. We propose a fast method for in vivo blood T2 quantification via computing the complex difference of(More)
We present a technique for quantifying global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) in absolute physiologic units at 3-second temporal resolution and apply the technique to quantify the dynamic CMRO2 response to volitional apnea. Temporal resolution of 3 seconds was achieved via a combination of view sharing and superior sagittal sinus-based(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the longitudinal repeatability and accuracy of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements by using pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeled (pCASL) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in typically developing children. MATERIALS AND METHODS Institutional review board approval with HIPAA compliance and informed consent were obtained.(More)
BACKGROUND Commonly used trivalent vaccines contain one influenza B virus lineage and may be ineffective against viruses of the other B lineage. We evaluated the efficacy of a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages. METHODS In this multinational, phase 3, observer-blinded study, we randomly assigned children(More)
BACKGROUND Two influenza B lineages have been co-circulating since the 1980s, and because inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) contains only one B strain, it provides little/no protection against the alternate B-lineage. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages versus TIV in healthy adults.(More)
Neonatal congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with altered cerebral hemodynamics and increased risk of brain injury. Two novel noninvasive techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffuse optical and correlation spectroscopies (diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)), were employed to quantify cerebral(More)
BACKGROUND Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have cocirculated since 2001, yet trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain 1 influenza B antigen, meaning lineage mismatch with the vaccine is frequent. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages vs TIV in healthy children aged 3-17 years.(More)