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Measuring the global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) is a valuable tool for assessing brain vitality and function. Measurement of blood oxygen saturation (HbO(2)) and flow in the major cerebral outflow and inflow vessels can provide a global estimate of CMRO(2). We demonstrate a rapid noninvasive method for quantifying CMRO(2) by simultaneously(More)
Measuring venous oxygen saturation (HbO2) in large blood vessels can provide important information about oxygen delivery and its consumption in vital organs. Quantification of blood's T2 value via MR can be utilized to determine HbO2 noninvasively. We propose a fast method for in vivo blood T2 quantification via computing the complex difference of(More)
The effect of hypercapnia on cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) has been a subject of intensive investigation and debate. Most applications of hypercapnia are based on the assumption that a mild increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide has negligible effect on cerebral metabolism. In this study, we sought to further investigate(More)
A time-efficient method is described for in vivo venous blood T(1) measurement using multiphase inversion-recovery-prepared balanced steady-state free precession imaging. Computer simulations and validation experiments using a flow phantom were carried out to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method for measuring blood T(1) by taking advantage of the(More)
Several subtypes of melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) have been reported. The M1 type of ipRGCs exhibit distinct properties compared with the remaining (non-M1) cells. They differ not only in their soma size and dendritic arbor, but also in their physiological properties, projection patterns, and functions.(More)
Quantification of blood oxygen saturation on the basis of a measurement of its magnetic susceptibility demands knowledge of the difference in volume susceptibility between fully oxygenated and fully deoxygenated blood (Δχ(do) ). However, two very different values of Δχ(do) are currently in use. In this work we measured Δχ(do) as well as the susceptibility(More)
PURPOSE To investigate whether intravitreally injected peanut agglutinin (PNA) conjugated with a fluorochrome can specifically label retinal cones in vivo and to evaluate its clinical potential. METHODS Fluorescein- or rhodamine-conjugated PNA (0.005%-0.5%) was intravitreally injected into anesthetized mouse, guinea pig, or monkey and retinas were removed(More)
BACKGROUND This study (NCT00383123) compared the immunogenicity and safety of 2 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines: Fluarix [GlaxoSmithKline (study vaccine)] and Fluzone [Sanofi Pasteur (control vaccine)] in children 6 months to <18 years. METHODS Children, stratified by age and randomized, received either study (N = 2115) or control vaccine (N =(More)
The presence of occult disease in cancer patients after therapy is one of the major problems faced by oncologists. For example, although 95% of pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients have a complete therapeutic response to multiagent chemotherapy, half will relapse, indicating that they must have harbored low levels of residual(More)
Neonatal congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with altered cerebral hemodynamics and increased risk of brain injury. Two novel noninvasive techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffuse optical and correlation spectroscopies (diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)), were employed to quantify cerebral(More)