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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns to induce innate immune responses and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferons and anti-inflammatory cytokines. TLRs activate downstream effectors through adaptors that contain Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, but the mechanisms accounting for(More)
Investigation of immune-cell differentiation and function is limited by shortcomings of suitable and scalable experimental systems. Here we show that retroviral delivery of an estrogen-regulated form of Hoxb8 into mouse bone marrow cells can be used along with Flt3 ligand to conditionally immortalize early hematopoietic progenitor cells (Hoxb8-FL cells).(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Type I interferon (IFN-I), whose contribution to antiviral and intracellular bacterial immunity is well established, is also elicited during pneumococcal infection, yet its functional significance is not(More)
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